🔥🔥🔥 Food Vacuoles Lab Report

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Food Vacuoles Lab Report

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Thus, the red cell oxygen equilibrium curve of the newborn is shifted to the left of that of the adult. The mean partial pressure of oxygen at which hemoglobin is 50 percent saturated with oxygen at 1 day of age in term infants is These results in a decrease in the oxygen released at the tissue level. As the PO2 falls from 90 torr in arterial to 40 torr in the venous blood, 3. The shift to the left of the oxygen equilibrium curve is even more pronounced in the premature infant, requiring a larger fall in PO2 to release an equivalent amount of oxygen. After birth the oxygen equilibrium curve shifts gradually to the right, reaching the position of the adult curve by 6 months of age.

The position of the curve in the premature infant correlates with gestational age rather than with postnatal age and its shift to the adult position is more gradual. Enzyme Activity: Many differences have been found between the metabolism of the red cells of newborn infants and that of adults. Some of the differences may be explained by the younger mean cell age in the newborn, but others seem to be properties of the fetal cell. The glucose consumption in newborn cells is lower than that in adult cells. Elevated levels of glucose phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase, phosphor glycerate kinase and enolase beyond those explainable by the young cell age have been found in neonatal cells. The level of phosphor fructokinase is low in red cells of term and premature infants.

The pentose phosphate shunt is active in red cells of term and premature infants, but there is glutathione instability and a heightened susceptibility to oxidant injury. Furthermore, there is relative instability of the 2,3-BPG concentration. Lower-than-adult activities have been found for several other red cell enzymes, including NADP-dependent methemoglobin reductase and glutathione peroxidase.

The levels of ATP and ADP are higher in the red cells of term and preterm infants but may merely reflect the younger age of the erythrocyte population. Membrane Activity: Membrane of the newborn red cell is different from that of the adult red cell. Ouabain-sensitive ATPase is decreased and active potassium influx is significantly less in neonatal red cells. Newborn cells are more sensitive to osmotic hemolysis and to oxidant injury than are adult cells. Newborn red cell membranes have higher total lipid, phosphor lipid and cholesterol per cell than adult red cells.

The patterns of phosphor lipid and phosphor lipid fatty acid composition also differ from those in adult red cells. Red cells of newborns have the same pattern of membrane proteins on poly acryl amide gel electrophoresis and the same rate of mobility in an electric field as do red cells from adults. After trypsin treatment of newborn and adult cells, however, there is a difference in electrophoretic mobility, indicating that the surface trypsin-resistant proteins are different. Table 3 Red cell indices of the babies on first day, third day and sixth weeks of life.

Fluctuations in the number of WBCs are common at all ages but are greatest in infants. Leukocytosis is typical at birth for full-term and preterm infants, with a wide range of normal. There is an excess of segmented neutrophils and bands and an occasional metamyelocyte, with no evidence of disease. During the subsequent days the leukocyte count continues to decrease as shown in Table 4 , the trend continues until fourth year. Neutrophilic leukocytes of Term and preterm infants show a greater absolute neutrophil count than of older children, who normally maintain higher lymphocytes.

The neutrophilic leukocyte count rises within the first 12 hours following birth, decreases between 1 month and 1 year and then gradually increases to stabilize at 4. Term and premature infants show a greater absolute neutrophil count than that found in older children, who characteristically maintain a predominance of lymphocytes. Band forms are also higher for the first 3 to 4 days after birth as shown in Table 4. There is some evidence that absolute neutrophil counts are lower in healthy black children than in white children. At birth, preterm infants exhibit a left shift, with promyelocytes and myelocytes frequently observed. The trend to lymphocyte predominance occurs later than in full-term infants.

The neutrophil counts in premature infants are similar to or slightly lower than the neutrophil counts in full-term infants during the first 5 days of life; however, the count gradually declines to 2. Neutropenia: Neutropenia is defined as a reduction in the number of circulating neutrophils to less than 1. Neutropenia accompanied by bands and metamyelocytes is often associated with infection, particularly in preterm neonates. Neutropenia represents a decrease in neutrophil production or an increase in consumption.

There was no difference in the normal ranges when values were stratified by infant birth weight or gestational age. Eosinophils and Basophils: The percentages of eosinophils and basophils remain consistent throughout infancy and childhood as shown in Table 5 and 6. Benign immature B cells hematogones , although predominantly found in the bone marrow, can sometimes be seen in the peripheral blood of newborns. Although these lymphocytes may be similar in appearance to the malignant cells seen in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia ALL , these benign cells lack the asynchronous or aberrant antigen expression seen in ALL and thus can be differentiated from the lymphocytes of infant ALL by immune phenol typing. Monocytes: The mean monocyte count of neonates is higher than adult values.

The count reaches adult levels at 3 to 5 months. Neutrophils include band cells at all ages and a small number of metamyelocytes and myelocytes in the first few days of life. Dashes indicate insufficient data for a reliable estimate. Sepsis in neonates is a common cause of morbidity, particularly in premature and low-birth-weight infants. Defective B-cell response against polysaccharide agents as well as abnormal cytokine release by neutrophils and monocytes has been implicated. Because of the transient neutrophilia that occurs during the first 24 hours after birth, followed by a rapid decline, the neutrophil count is not a satisfactory index of infection in the newborn.

Newborns with bacterial infections frequently have normal or below normal neutrophil counts with a shift to the left. Thus, many practitioners depend upon the band count and its derived immature-to-total neutrophil ratio as an indicator of sepsis in neonates, although CD64, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels have been suggested as more sensitive markers of sepsis in infants and children. Platelet counts generally increase in both term and preterm infants in the first few months of life, as evidenced by increased mean platelet volume the first month of life as shown in Table 7.

Platelets of a newborn infant show great variation in size and shape. Adult reference ranges are achieved by 6 months of age. Thrombocytopenia in premature infants should be considered abnormal not physiologic. The physiology of the hemostatic system in infants and children is different from that in adults. In contrast, the levels of fibrinogen, factor VIII and von Willebrand factor are similar to adult values throughout childhood. Antithrombin reaches adult values by 3 months, whereas protein C does not normalize until after 6 months.

The hematopoietic system is modestly affected by aging and these effects become particularly notable after age There is a continuous decrease in the volume of the hematopoietic marrow with age, which does not cause significant alterations in either granulocyte, monocyte or platelet counts, although a slight decrease in population mean hemoglobin concentration in men occurs. The recruitment of neutrophils in response to exogenous stimuli is slightly decreased, but the response to infection does not appear impaired.

Neutrophil function is not significantly decreased with age of the subject. Although the population mean vitamin B12 and folate levels decrease with age, these changes do not result in decreased hematopoiesis as judged by blood counts, except in individual patients with significant deficiencies. Certain coagulation proteins are altered significantly with aging and a propensity to accelerated coagulation and compensatory fibrinolysis is present, leading to a new steady state.

Decreased immune cell function is the most consistent change in older persons and perhaps the most important functionally. Although there is a tendency to decreased lymphocyte counts in the blood, the major effects are mediated by dysregulation of T lymphocyte function, perhaps as a result of the prolonged period since thymic atrophy in older subjects. This change affects both cellular immune functions and antibody responses to antigens because of the T helper cell function required.

However, The aging process is associated with the functional decline of several organ systems, such as cardiovascular, renal, musculo-skeletal, pulmonary and bone marrow reserve. The cellularity of the marrow decreases with aging, as estimated from studies of histologic sections and magnetic resonance imaging confirms an age-related reduction in marrow cellularity. Studies of marrow from the anterior iliac crest demonstrate a progressive decrease in cellularity from percent to about 50 percent over the first 30 years of life.

Cellularity of about 40 percent has been found in sternal marrow from normal adults. In iliac crest marrow there is a plateau of about 50 percent cellularity to age 65, after which a decrease in cellularity to about 30 percent occurs over the succeeding decade. These changes may account for the more pronounced marrow hypocellularity in the subcortical zone. Most elderly persons maintain a normal blood count and elderly individuals with low Hb levels have an underlying health problem. The variables contributing to anemia are a decrease in bone marrow function, a decline in physical activity, cardiovascular disease and chronic inflammatory disorders.

Most studies have shown that the mean hemoglobin level or hematocrit for a population of men falls slightly after middle age, mean hemoglobin levels decrease by less than 1. In a group of men aged 84 to 98 years the mean hemoglobin level was The lowest levels, however, are found in the oldest patients. The hemoglobin levels in women may increase slightly with age or remain unchanged. The narrowing of the difference in hemoglobin level between older men and woman may be the result of decreased androgen levels in older men and decreased estrogen levels in older women.

However, shortened red cell survival may play a role in the unexplained mild decrease in hemoglobin concentration in some older individuals. To lesser degree, the elderly are prone to anemias such as sideroblastic, aplastic, hemolytic, myelophthisic or anemia due to protein calorie malnutrition. Hypo proliferation or decreased production of RBCs is a common form of anemia in the elderly. Initially, this form of anemia was called unexplained anemia, senile anemia and anemia of senescence. Hypo proliferative anemia often occurs secondary to iron deficiency, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, renal failure, hypothyroidism, chronic inflammation or endocrine disease.

However, Iron deficiency and the anemia of chronic disease have usually been responsible for low hemoglobin levels in the majority of asymptomatic elderly people. Iron absorption is not impaired in the elderly, but utilization of orally administered iron for hemoglobin production is reduced. Since hemoglobin concentration does not decrease significantly with age, elderly patients with anemia should be evaluated for a cause iron, folate, or vitamin B12 deficiency or underlying malignancy or renal disease, etc.

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and C Reactive Protein: The erythrocyte sedimentation rate increases significantly with age. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is of limited value in detecting disease in elderly patients. Estimation of levels of acute-phase proteins appears to offer no advantage over the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The C-reactive protein content of serum also is mildly elevated in older individuals without an apparent inflammatory process.

Erythrocyte 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate Concentration 2,3-BPG : The erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate 2,3-BPG level has been reported to fall with age from a mean value of This decrease is could account for a slight increase in oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility is increased in older individuals in comparison with younger subjects. This phenomenon is associated with an increased mean corpuscular volume MCV and decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration MCHC of the red cells of older people. There is no consistent, significant variation in the total white blood cell count in older subjects. Normal total white blood cell count and neutrophil counts were found in nonagenarian and centenarian populations.

Some investigators have found that above age 65 the total white blood cell count tends to be lower in both sexes, due primarily to a decrease in the lymphocyte count. Others have reported a decrease in the white blood cell count due to a fall in the lymphocyte and the neutrophil count in women, but not in men, over age The absolute lymphocyte count has also been reported to be unchanged in the aged. Leukocyte count does not rise as high in response to infection in elderly individuals as in young people and that often the principal manifestation of a leukocyte response is an increase in the number of band forms in an otherwise normal leukocyte count.

The leukocyte count and the proportion of neutrophils rise much less in response to bacterial pyrogen in individuals over age 70 than in young adults. Similarly, the neutrophilic leukocytosis that occurs 5 hours after the oral administration of 40 mg prednisolone is diminished in patients over 55 years of age. The decreased responsiveness of older individuals to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced release of neutrophils from the marrow supports these suppositions.

Leukocyte function and serum opsonic capacity is well preserved in elderly individuals, but defects in phagocytic ability and diminished responses to chemotactic peptides and to oxidative stress have been documented. Defects in neutrophil function in elderly subjects may be due to inhibitory substances detected in plasma. Splenic function in elderly subjects may be impaired, as evidenced by an increase in the percentage of pitted erythrocytes in the blood.

In the healthy elderly with no underlying pathologic condition, there are no statistically significant differences in the total leukocyte count or WBC differential between old-old compared with middle- aged adults. Immune senescence, age -related defects in lymphopoiesis, affects humoral and cellular immunity. The thymus disappears by early middle age and adults depend on T lymphocyte response in the secondary tissue. T cells of the elderly have impaired responsiveness to mitogens and antigens as a result of a decreased expression of co-stimulator CD B lymphocyte function depends on T cell interaction. When T cell inadequacies occur, there may be a decreased ability to generate an antibody response. Decrease in immune function mediated by lymphocytes is the most significant change with aging.

Thymus involution occurs after puberty and total thymic atrophy occurs by late middle age. With these changes, thymic-mediated T lymphocyte development disappears and older individuals are dependent on their existing T lymphocyte pool to mediate T cell-dependent immune responses. In the absence of thymic function, the number of naive T cells decreases in older individuals and memory T cells are the predominant type. B lymphocyte function is dependent on T cell accessory roles and the decreased ability to generate antibody responses, especially to primary antigens, may be the result of T cell inadequacies rather than an intrinsic fault of B lymphocytes.

Natural killer cells are increased in number, but their function is disturbed. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are reduced in the elderly. These immunologic deficits are correlated with overall mortality in individuals over age Serum immunoglobulin M and G concentrations do not change significantly in older subjects. Serum IgA levels increase with age. An increased prevalence of auto antibodies e. Mayo Clinic normal values, based primarily on white subjects, are in parentheses for comparison. The platelet count does not change with age. Enhanced in vitro reactivity to platelet-aggregating agents has been observed. Decreased platelet membrane protein kinase C activity and translocation to the cytosol after platelet activation was noted in platelets from older subjects.

Plasma concentrations of factor VII coagulant activity and antigen, factor VIIIC, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, fibrino-peptide A and tissue plasminogen activator antigen are increased with age. Fibrinogen level has been found to be a risk factor for thrombotic vascular disease. In healthy centenarians, levels of activated factor VII, activation peptides of pro-thrombin, factors IX and X and thrombin-anti thrombin complex concentration were increased, signs of higher-than-expected coagulation enzyme activity.

Higher D-dimer and plasmin-antiplasmin complexes indicate an accompanying increase in fibrinolytic activity. Thus, coagulant and fibrinolytic activities appear to be increased in the older subjects by both in vitro and in vivo studies. Several hematologic diseases are increased in frequency with age; notable increase in clonal neoplastic diseases of hematopoiesis, which depicts the rate of occurrence of the leukemias the aggregate of the four major types , lymphoma and myeloma at 5-year intervals. The inclusion of acute lymphocytic leukemia, which has a mode at about 3. Although hematologic malignancies may occur at any age, certain disorders are common in those older than 50 years.

Myelodysplastic syndromes a heterogenous group characterized by a defect in the hematopoietic stem cell that may affect multiple cell lineages are diagnosed more frequently in the elderly and in some patients myelodysplastic syndrome terminates in acute leukemia. Myelo proliferative disorders are monoclonal proliferations of hemapoietic stem cells with over accumulation of RBCs, WBCs or platelets in various combinations. The average age of patients with polycythemia vera is 60 years. The incidence of chronic myelogenous leukemia increases after age Chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis occurs in age between 50 to 70 years. The onset is usually asymptomatic at a median age of 60 to 65 years and it occurs twice as often in males as compared with females.

Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell cancer characterized by monoclonal gammopathy and multifocal destructive bone lesions throughout the skeleton. The neoplastic plasma cells secret complete or incomplete immunoglobulins. It occurs at an equal frequency in males and female. The hematological changes are obvious in both the neonates and the elderly persons and at such; different hematological variables must be implemented in various developing stages of the neonates as well as the different classes of aged elderly individuals.

Also among the elderly, certain hematological disorders are more dominant and clinicians should be attentive to this. Further studies should be carried out in each of the laboratories to establish their hematological reference values based on sex and age for both healthy newborn and aging instead of using published reference intervals. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially. Withdrawal Guidlines. Publication Ethics. Withdrawal Policies Publication Ethics. Review Article Volume 3 Issue 3. Prenatal Hematopoiesis Hematopoiesis is the formation and development of blood cells from stem cells, begins in the first weeks of embryonic development and proceeds systematically through three phases of development: mesoblastic yolk sac , hepatic liver and myeloid bone marrow.

Infants can be subcategorized further by birth weight as Appropriate size for gestational age Small for gestational age, including low-birth-weight infants g or less Very-low-birth-weight infants g or less Extremely-low-birth-weight micro preemies g or less and Large for gestational age more than g. Age of infant with birth weight less than g parameters days days 2 weeks 4 weeks 6 weeks 8 weeks Hemoglobin General hematology. Hematological profile of apparently healthy term babies aged one day, three days and six weeks delivered in Sagamu, Nigeria.

Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics. Hematological indices in healthy Nigerian neonates. Niger Med Pract. Segel GB, Palis J. Haematology of the Newborn. In: Beutler E, et al. Williams Haematology. Development of the haematopoietic system. In: Behrman RE, et al. Nelson Textbook of Paediatrics. Philadelphia W. USA: Saunders Company; Christensen RD. Expected hematologic values for term and preterm neonates. Hematologic problems of the neonates. Philadelphia, USA; Roberts AGI. Haematological problems of the newborn. In: McIntosh N, et al. Forfar and Arneil's Textbook of Paediatrics. Population pharmacodynamic analysis of erythropoiesis in preterm infants for determining the anemia treatment potential of erythropoietin.

End-tidal carbon monoxide as an indicator of the hemolytic rate. Blood Cells Mol Dis. Erythrocyte and reticulocyte indices in the assessment of erythropoiesis activity and iron availability. Int J Lab Hematol. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content during the first month of life in critically ill very low birth weight neonates differs from term infants, children, and adults. J Clin Lab Anal. Clinical utility of reticulocyte parameters. Clin Lab Med. Older Americans: Key indicators of well being.

Federal interagency forum on aging related statistics, Washington, USA; Smith D. Management and treatment of anemia in the elderly. Clin Geriatr. Issues in neonatal cellular analysis. Am J Clin Pathol. Goossen LH. Pediatric and geriatric hematology. Yoder MC. Embryonic hematopoiesis. In: Christensen RD, editor. Hematologic problems of the neonate. USA: Philadelphia saunders; Normal hematological values. Newborn services clinical guidelines, USA; Fetal and embryonic hemoglobins in erythroblasts of chromosomally normal and abnormal fetuses at weeks of gestation. He Z, Russell JE. Expression, purification and characterization of human hemoglobins Gower-1 zeta 2 epsilon 2 , Gower-2 alpha 2 epsilon 2 and Portland-2 zeta 2 beta 2 assembled in complex transgenic-knockout mice.

Normal development of human fetal hematopoiesis between eight and seventeen weeks gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Henry E, Christensen RD. Reference intervals in neonatal hematology. Archaea define a prokaryotic domain distinct from bacteria. Most protists are single-celled eukaryotes. At the border between living and non-living, viruses do not fit into any domain. A life history is like a species summary. Ecology influences the evolution of aging in a population. The human population is growing rapidly. Interacting physical forces create climate and weather patterns. Energy and chemicals flow within ecosystems.

Species interactions influence the structure of communities. Communities can change or remain stable over time. Chapter 18 Conservation and Biodiversity Human influences on the environment Biodiversity is valuable in many ways. Extinction reduces biodiversity. Human activities can damage the environment. Introduced non-native. Tropical deforestation. We can develop strategies for effective conservation. Chapter 19 Plant Structure and Nutrient Transport How plants function, and why we need them Plants are a diverse group of organisms with multiple pathways to evolutionary success.

Most plants have common structural features. Plants harness sunlight and obtain usable chemical elements from the environment. Plants transport water, sugar, and minerals through vascular tissue. Pollination, fertilization, and seed dispersal often depend on help from other organisms. Plants have two types of growth, usually enabling lifelong increases in length and thickness. Hormones regulate growth and development. External cues trigger internal responses. Animals maintain a steady internal environment. How does homeostasis work? Chapter 22 Circulation and Respiration Transporting fuel, raw materials, and gases into, out of, and around the body The circulatory system is the chief route of distribution in animals.

The human circulatory system consists of a heart, blood vessels, and blood. The respiratory system enables gas exchange in animals. Chapter 23 Nutrition and Digestion At rest and at play: optimizing human physiological functioning Food provides the raw materials for growth and the fuel to make it happen. Nutrients are grouped into six categories. We extract energy and nutrients from food. What we eat profoundly affects our health. Chapter 24 Nervous and Motor Systems Actions, reactions, sensations, and addictions: meet your nervous system What is the nervous system? How do neurons work?

Our senses detect and transmit stimuli. The muscular and skeletal systems enable movement. The brain is organized into distinct structures dedicated to specific functions. Drugs can hijack pleasure pathways. Caffeine wakes it up. Chapter 25 Hormones Mood, emotions, growth, and more: hormones as master regulators Hormones are chemical messengers regulating cell functions. Hormones are produced in glands throughout the body. Hormones influence nearly every facet of an organism. Environmental contaminants can disrupt normal hormone functioning. Maybe not. Chapter 26 Reproduction and Development From two parents to one embryo to one baby How do animals reproduce?

Male and female reproductive systems have important similarities and differences. Sex can lead to fertilization, but it can also spread sexually transmitted diseases. Human development occurs in specific stages. Reproductive technology has benefits and dangers. Chapter 27 Immunity and Health How the body defends and maintains itself Your body has different ways to protect you against disease-causing invaders. Specific immunity develops after exposure to pathogens. Malfunction of the immune system causes disease. Jay Phelan teaches biology at UCLA, where he has taught introductory biology in large lectures for majors and nonmajors for fifteen years.

His primary area of research is evolutionary genetics, and his original research has been published in Evolution, Experimental Gerontology, and the Journal of Integrative and Comparative Biology, among others. He is the recipient of more than a dozen teaching awards. Written for the general reader, Mean Genes explains in simple terms how knowledge of the genetic basis of human nature can empower individuals to lead more satisfying lives.

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