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Yet others categorize kleptomania as a variation of an impulse control disorder, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder or eating disorders. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition DSM IV-TR , a frequent and widely used guide for the diagnosis of mental disorders, the following symptoms and characteristics are the diagnostic criteria for kleptomania:. Skeptics have decried kleptomania as an invalid psychiatric concept exploited in legal defenses of wealthy female shoplifters.
During the twentieth century, kleptomania was strongly linked with the increased prevalence of department stores, and "department store kleptomaniacs" were a widely held social stereotype that had political implications. Kleptomania seems to be linked with other psychiatric disorders, especially mood swings, anxiety, eating disorders, and alcohol and substance use. The occurrence of stealing as a behavior in conjunction with eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa , is frequently taken as a sign of the harshness of the eating disorder.
A likely connection between depression and kleptomania was reported as early as It has since been extensively established in clinical observations and available case reports. The mood disorder could come first or co-occur with the beginning of kleptomania. In advanced cases, depression may result in self-inflicted injury and could even lead to suicide. Some people have reported relief from depression or manic symptoms after theft. It has been suggested that because kleptomania is linked to strong compulsive and impulsive qualities, it can be viewed as a variation of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, together with pathological gambling , compulsive buying , pyromania , nailbiting and trichotillomania.
This point achieves support from the unusually higher cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD; see below in close relatives of patients with kleptomania. Data from epidemiological studies additionally propose that there is an affiliation between kleptomania and substance use disorders along with high rates in a unidirectional manner. Phenomenological data maintain that there is a relationship between kleptomania and drug addictions. A higher percentage of cases of kleptomania has been noted in adolescents and young adults, and a lesser number of cases among older adults, which imply an analogous natural history to that seen in substance use disorders.
Family history data also propose a probable common genetic input to alcohol use and kleptomania. Substance use disorders are more common in kin of persons with kleptomania than in the general population. Furthermore, pharmacological data e. Based on the idea that kleptomania and substance use disorders may share some etiological features, it could be concluded that kleptomania would react optimistically to the same treatments. As a matter of fact, certain non-medical treatment methods that are successful in treating substance use are also accommodating in treating kleptomania.
Kleptomania is frequently thought of as being a part of obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD , since the irresistible and uncontrollable actions are similar to the frequently excessive, unnecessary, and unwanted rituals of OCD. Some individuals with kleptomania demonstrate hoarding symptoms that resemble those with OCD. Prevalence rates between the two disorders do not demonstrate a strong relationship.
Pyromania , another impulse disorder, has many ties to kleptomania. Many pyromaniacs begin fires alongside petty stealing which often appears similar to kleptomania. Although the disorder has been known to psychologists for a long time, the cause of kleptomania is still ambiguous. Therefore, a diverse range of therapeutic approaches have been introduced for its treatment.
These treatments include: psychoanalytic oriented psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, and pharmacotherapy. Several explanations of the mechanics of kleptomania have been presented. A contemporary social approach proposes that kleptomania is an outcome of consumerism and the large quantity of commodities in society. Psychodynamic theories depend on a variety of points of view in defining the disorder. Psychoanalysts define the condition as an indication of a defense mechanism deriving in the unconscious ego against anxiety, prohibited intuition or desires, unsettled struggle or forbidden sexual drives, dread of castration, sexual excitement, and sexual fulfillment and orgasm throughout the act of stealing.
Like most psychiatric conditions, kleptomania was observed within the psycho-dynamic lens instead of being viewed as a bio-medical disorder. However, the prevalence of psychoanalytic approach contributed to the growth of other approaches, particularly in the biological domain. Cognitive-behavioural therapy CBT has primarily substituted the psychoanalytic and dynamic approach in the treatment of kleptomania.
Numerous behavioural approaches have been recommended as helpful according to several cases stated in the literature. They include: hidden sensitisation by unpleasant images of nausea and vomiting, aversion therapy for example, aversive holding of breath to achieve a slightly painful feeling every time a desire to steal or the act is imagined , and systematic desensitisation. Even though the approaches used in CBT need more research and investigation in kleptomania, success in combining these methods with medication was illustrated over the use of drug treatment as the single method of treatment.
The phenomenological similarity and the suggested common basic biological dynamics of kleptomania and OCD, pathological gambling and trichotillomania gave rise to the theory that the similar groups of medications could be used in all these conditions. Consequently, the primary use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI group, which is a form of antidepressant, has been used in kleptomania and other impulse control disorders such as binge eating and OCD.
Electroconvulsive therapy ECT , lithium and valproic acid sodium valproate have been used as well. The SSRI's usage is due to the assumption that the biological dynamics of these conditions derives from low levels of serotonin in brain synapses, and that the efficacy of this type of therapy will be relevant to kleptomania and to other comorbid conditions. Opioid receptor antagonists are regarded as practical in lessening urge-related symptoms, which is a central part of impulse control disorders; for this reason, they are used in treatment of substance use. This quality makes them helpful in treating kleptomania and impulse control disorders in general.
The most frequently used drug is naltrexone , a long-acting competitive antagonist. There have been no controlled studies of the psycho-pharmacological treatment of kleptomania. This could be as a consequence of kleptomania being a rare phenomenon and the difficulty in achieving a large enough sample. Facts about this issue come largely from case reports or from bits and pieces gathered from a comparatively small number of cases enclosed in a group series. In the nineteenth century, French psychiatrists began to observe kleptomaniacal behavior, but were constrained by their approach. Hysteria , imbecility, cerebral defect, and menopause were advanced as theories to explain these seemingly nonsensical behaviors, and many linked kleptomania to immaturity, given the inclination of young children to take whatever they want.
These French and German observations later became central to psychoanalytic explanations of kleptomania. Its meaning roughly corresponds to "compulsion to steal" or "compulsive stealing". In the early twentieth century, kleptomania was viewed more as a legal excuse for self-indulgent haut bourgeois ladies than a valid psychiatric ailment by French psychiatrists. Sigmund Freud , the creator of controversial psychoanalytic theory , believed that the underlying dynamics of human behaviours associated with uncivilized savages—impulses were curbed by inhibitions for social life.
He did not believe human behaviour to be rational. He created a large theoretical corpus which his disciples applied to such psychological problems as kleptomania. In , one of his followers, Wilhelm Stekel , read the case of a female kleptomaniac who was driven by suppressed sexual urges to take hold of "something forbidden, secretly". Stekel concluded that kleptomania was "suppressed and superseded sexual desire carried out through medium of a symbol or symbolic action. Every compulsion in psychic life is brought about by suppression".
Fritz Wittels argued that kleptomaniacs were sexually underdeveloped people who felt deprived of love and had little experience with human sexual relationships; stealing was their sex life, giving them thrills so powerful that they did not want to be cured. Male kleptomaniacs, in his view, were homosexual or invariably effeminate. A famous large-scale analysis of shoplifters in the United Kingdom ridiculed Stekel's notion of sexual symbolism and claimed that one out of five apprehended shoplifters was a "psychiatric". Empirically based conceptual articles have argued that kleptomania is becoming more common than previously thought, and occurs more frequently among women than men. These ideas are new in recent history but echo those current in the mid to late nineteenth century.
Stealing frequently becomes an obsession. Although people know they could get caught and marked for life, they find it hard to give up the habit. Major symptoms include a person's decreased resistance to steal objects unnecessarily, feeling entitled to own them at any cost. If a person gets away with stealing they may experience an adrenaline rush and for some successful thefts, dopamine is produced by the brain that can affect heart rate and blood pressure. Media related to Kleptomania at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Kleptomaniac. Inability to resist the urge to steal. For other uses, see Kleptomania disambiguation. Medical condition.
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June 6th, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietics. Plant Cell Biology. Volume 6, November 1st, November 4, Huffington Post Blog. September 29th,Dannon Disease Case Study other uses, see Kleptomania disambiguation. When newspaper or magazine articles claim the effectiveness Alcoholism In Truman Capotes In Cold Blood some product or Dannon Disease Case Study, it is wise to a. Skinner would be considered a a. Specifically, women who ate Dannon Disease Case Study five Dannon Disease Case Study more times a week were found to have a 20 percent Dannon Disease Case Study risk of having high blood pressure.