⚡ Scurvy Research Paper

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Scurvy Research Paper

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Scurvy and its prevention with vitamin C

Protection against hypochlorous acid-mediated inactivation of glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase and ATP generation in human leukocytes as a possible mechanism of ascorbate-mediated immunostimulation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Lahiri S, Lloyd BB. The effect of stress and corticotrophin on the concentrations of vitamin C in blood and tissues of the rat. Vitamin C promotes maturation of T-cells.

Antioxid Redox Signal. Melatonin, minocycline and ascorbic acid reduce oxidative stress and viral titers and increase survival rate in experimental Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Brain Res. J Nutr. BioMed Res Int. Banic S. Prevention of rabies by vitamin C. Colored precipitation reaction of the urine according to Kimbarowski FARK as an index of the effect of ascorbic acid during treatment of viral influenza. Das Deutsche Gesundheitswesen. PubMed Abstract. A study of intravenous administration of vitamin c in the treatment of acute herpetic pain and postherpetic neuralgia.

Ann Dermatol. Clinical features of herpes simplex keratitis in a Korean tertiary referral center: efficacy of oral antiviral and ascorbic acid on recurrence. Kor J Ophthalmol. Ascorbic acid concentrations in aqueous humor after systemic vitamin C supplementation in patients with cataract: pilot study. BMC Ophthalmol. High dose intravenous vitamin C and influenza: a case report. J Orthomol Med. World J Crit Care Med.

Quercetin reduces susceptibility to influenza infection following stressful exercise. The use of citrus flavonoids in respiratory infections. Am J Dig Dis. HIV entry inhibitors targeting gp from polypeptides to small-molecule compounds. Curr Pharm Des. Influenza A virus entry inhibitors targeting the hemagglutinin. Virus Res. Quercetin inhibits rhinovirus replication in vitro and in vivo. Respir Res. Quercetin blocks airway epithelial cell chemokine expression. Anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin and isoquercitrin in experimental murine allergic asthma.

Inflamm Res. In vitro antiviral activities of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and its related flavonoids. J Antimicrob Chemother. Ono K, Nakane H. J Biochem. Differential inhibitory effects of various flavonoids on the activities of reverse transcriptase and cellular DNA and RNA polymerases. Eur J Biochem. Antiviral activity of flavones and potentiation by ascorbate. J Gen Virol. The poliovirus-induced shut-off of cellular protein synthesis persists in the presence of 3-methylquercetin, a flavonoid which blocks viral protein and RNA synthesis. Castrillo JL, Carrasco L. Action of 3-methylquercetin on poliovirus RNA replication. J Virol. Bioorg Med Chem. Flavonol 7-O-glucoside herbacitrin inhibits HIV-1 replication through simultaneous integrase and reverse transcriptase inhibition.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus replication by ascorbate in chronically and acutely infected cells. Inhibitory activity of flavonoids and tannins against HIV-1 protease. Biol Pharm Bull. The heat shock protein inhibitor Quercetin attenuates hepatitis C virus production. Inhibition of the activation of heat shock factor in vivo and in vitro by flavonoids. Mol Cell Biol. Flavonoids inhibit the expression of heat shock proteins. Cell Struct Funct. Improvement of leukocyte functions in prematurely aging mice after five weeks of diet supplementation with polyphenol-rich cereals. Effect of dietary chlorogenic acid on multiple immune functions and formation of aberrant crypt foci in rats.

J Toxicol Environ Health A. In vitro inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication in human foreskin fibroblasts and endothelial cells by ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. Immune Netw. Mikirova N. Hunninghake R. Effect of high dose vitamin C on Epstein-Barr viral infection. Med Sci Monit. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. J Neurovirol. Vitamin C—a challenge in management of rabies. Swiss Med Weekly. Siegel BV. Enhanced interferon response to murine leukemia virus by ascorbic acid. Infect Immun. Enhancement of interferon production by poly rI -poly rC in mouse cell cultures by ascorbic acid.

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J Mol Biol. Binding interaction of quercetinbeta-galactoside and its synthetic derivatives with SARS-CoV 3CL pro : structure-activity relationship studies reveal salient pharmacophore features. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The effect of ascorbic acid on infection chick-embryo ciliated tracheal organ cultures by coronavirus. Health effects of quercetin: from antioxidant to nutraceutical. Eur J Pharmacol. Guo Y, Bruno RS. Endogenous and exogenous mediators of quercetin bioavailability. J Nutr Biochem. Murota K, Terao J. Antioxidative flavonoid quercetin: implication of its intestinal absorption and metabolism.

Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of the flavonol quercetin in humans. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. Characterization of polyphenols metabolites. In: Bao Y and Fenwick R editors. Phytochemicals in Health and Disease. Tissue distribution of quercetin in rats and pigs. Quercetin pharmacokinetics in humans. Biopharm Drug Dispos. Quercetin in men with category III chronic prostatitis: a preliminary prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

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J Agric Food Chem. While Mississippians, 33 percent of whom said they engaged in no physical activity at all, sweltering in the Southern heat might pass up opportunities to move their bodies, Coloradans don't. That more than 80 percent of Coloradans get some physical activity makes sense when you consider the bounteous opportunities for outdoor sports in the state, from long skiing seasons to hiking peaks.

You don't have to jog or cycle, but engaging in some fun activity that gets you moving can promote both health and happiness. It can even make room for a hamburger or that famous Southern cooking. Wilson is the senior research analyst at the Center for Consumer Freedom, a nonprofit coalition supported by restaurants, food companies and consumers to promote personal responsibility and protect consumer choices. Trending Articles. Opinion Wilson: The wrong approach to obesity America is a country of contradictions. Written By: news inforum. Suggested Articles. Health depended on a proper balance of these humours. While crude, this concept of humours provided some sort of rationale for understanding health and disease.

Greek physicians prescribed changes in diet or lifestyle and sometimes concocted drugs or performed surgery. An excess of the humour blood, for example, became the rationale for bloodletting, a practice that was followed for centuries without any evidence of its efficacy. Despite the contributions of the Corpus, medical and scientific progress in Europe was arrested for several centuries. The population grew, and cities became densely populated, but there was little attention to waste disposal and sanitation. These factors set the stage for endemic disease and periodic epidemics. Bubonic plague is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.

The bacteria live in the intestines of fleas and are transmitted to rats by flea bites. The rats, therefore, serve as a natural reservoir for the disease, and fleas are the vectors. Occasionally, an infected flea would jump to a human and introduce the bacteria when a blood meal was taken. The bacteria would then spread to the regional lymph nodes and multiply, causing dark, tender, swollen nodules buboes , as shown below in a boy a walnut-sized swelling in the inner aspect of his upper thigh. Starting in , Europe experienced multiple waves of bubonic plague epidemics that lasted until the late s. It is believed that the bubonic plague originated in Asia and traveled along trade routes into the Black Sea and then into the Mediterranean Sea. From there, it swept through Sicily and Italy and then up through France and the northern European countries all the way up into Scandinavia.

There were many subsequent waves of plague that swept through Europe until the late s. The map below shows the spread of plague over a three year period from Asia across the Black Sea into the Mediterranean and then through Italy, France, England, Northern Europe, and into Scandanavia. The cause of the plague was not known, but there were many theories. The most popular explanation was that it was caused by "miasmas," invisible vapors that emanated from swamps or cesspools and floated around in the air, where they could be inhaled. Others thought it was spread by person to person contact, or perhaps by too much sun exposure, or by intentional poisoning. The miasma theory was the most popular, however. One of the popes kept large fires burning at both ends of the room he worked in order to counteract the miasmas.

The illustration on the left shows a "plague doctor," who is covered from head to toe, including a hood, a mask, gloves, and a beak-like sack on his nose. The covering on the nose contained aromatic herbs, which were believed to neutralize miasmas. There were also crude medicines that were concocted to prevent or cure the bubonic plague; one of them was known as theriac. Of course, smoke and aromatic herbs and theriac were ineffective, because the plague was primarily spread by flea bites although sometimes victims developed a plague pneumonia that caused them to cough up a bloody, plague-filled aerosol that could be transmitted to others by inhalation; this was the 'pneumonic' form of the plague.

The below shows one of the "plague doctors" who were clothed from head to toe including hood and mask in order to protect themselves from the miasmas that spread plague. While most believed that plague was caused by miasmas, the primary mode of transmission was actually via flea bites, and, in a sense, the real causes were increased population density and failure to dispose of garbage. Accumulations of garbage attracted rats and enabled the rat population to explode. Rats had harbored fleas and Yersinia pestis for many years without major difficulty, and plague epidemics in humans didn't occur until human behaviors created environments that brought people into proximity with rats, fleas, and Yersina pestis.

These were the real causes of the plague epidemics. At first glance one might blame the lack of understanding about transmission and the ineffective preventive measures on the primitive level of scientific understanding. However, the inability to identify the cause and the inability to identify effective control measures was not due to a lack of sophisticated technology. Instead, it was primarily due to the fact that humans had not yet developed a structured way to think about the determinants of disease. There were certainly theories of how the plague spread and these led to preventive strategies, but none of the theories or preventive strategies or treatments were ever tested by collecting observations in groups of people.

The idea of studying groups of people to test associations between "risk factors" and disease outcomes had not yet evolved. Key Concept : The lack of a systematic way of testing possible associations between exposures and outcomes "risk factors" and disease was the major factor that prevented advances in understanding the causes of disease and the development of effective strategies to prevent or treat disease. The use of quarantine as a public health measure dates back to the 14th century when the Black Death ravaged Italy and the rest of Europe. Quarantine comes from the Italian quarantena , meaning forty-day period. Travelers and merchandise that had potentially been exposed to disease were isolated for a period of time to ensure that they weren't infected.

Some cities and towns would create a "cordon sanitaire,' a physical barrier that could only be crossed with permission. This practice persisted into the late 19th century and early 20th century. When plague threatened San Francisco, the Chinese section was quarantined by encircling it with a rope with armed guards to ensure that unauthorized individuals did not pass through. Fourteen blocks of the city were literally cordoned off, isolation 10, people..

While quarantine is one of the oldest public health measures, it is still useful today. During the SARS epidemic, Toronto quarantined individuals who had potentially been exposed by confining them to their homes until it was certain that they weren't infected. Consequently, if an individual was possibly exposed, but did not yet show symptoms, quarantine prevented them from infecting others. However, quarantine is less useful for diseases like influenza, when an infected person can spread the disease even before they begin having symptoms.

Quarantine is different from isolation , which is separation of a person who has the disease; quarantine refers to the separation of an individual who has possibly been exposed to disease. DeWitte from www. Systematic thinking about how to establish the determinants of health and disease was not suddenly invented by a single individual. It evolved over centuries. One can see sparks of insight intermittently over time. In the s and s one can see attempts to examine the causes of disease and the effectiveness of prevention and treatment in a systematic way. This page provides an interesting, but incomplete assortment of examples illustrating some of the major ideas that emerged and contributed to the evolution of how we investigate the factors associated with health and disease and establish the determinants.

Girolamo Fracastoro shown below was an Italian physician, poet, astronomer, and geologist, who wrote about 'disease seeds' carried by wind or direct contact. In essence, he was proposing the germ theory of disease more than years before its formal articulation by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. In , Fracastoro outlined his concept of epidemic diseases in " De contagione et contagiosis morbis" and speculated that each disease was caused by a different type of rapidly multiplying 'seed' and that these could be transmitted by direct contact, through the air, or on contaminated clothing and linens.

Similar speculation had been mentioned as a possible cause of disease by the Roman scholar Marcus Varro in the 1st century BC. It was once believed that life forms could arise spontaneously. In Francesco Redi boiled broth and sealed it; no growth occurred, suggesting that Fracastoro was correct. Beginning around the parish clerks in London began recording deaths. Graunt analyzed the data extensively and made a number of observations regarding common causes of death, higher death rates in men, seasonal variation in death rates, and the fact that some diseases had relatively constant death rates, while others varied considerably.

Graunt also estimated population size and rates of population growth, and he was the first to construct a "life table" in order to address the issue of survival from the time of birth. Van Leeuwenhouk's accomplishments were preceded by those of Robert Hooke, who had published " Micrographia" in Hooke devised a compound microscope and used it to examine and describe the structure of nature on a microscopic level, including insects, feathers, and plants. In fact, it was Hooke who discovered plant cells and coined the term "cells".

Anton van Leeuwenhoek of Holland was "the father of microscopy. Van Leeuwenhoek was fascinated by the lenses and experimented with new methods for grinding and polishing more powerful lenses. He was able to achieve magnifications up to x diameters. He used these to create the first useful microscopes. Using his inventions, he was the first to see bacteria , yeast, protozoa, sperm cells, and red blood cells. John Pringle was a Scot who served as physician general to the British forces during the War of the Austrian Succession — Pringle published " Observations on the Diseases of the Army " in , in which he proposed a number of measures aimed at improving the health of soldiers including improvements in hospital ventilation and camp sanitation, proper drainage, adequate latrines, and the avoidance of marshes.

He wrote expensively on the importance of hygiene to prevent typhus or "jail fever," which was a common malady among soldiers and prisoners in jails. Pringle incorrectly believed that typhus was caused by filth. In fact, it is caused by a small bacterium a rickettsia. Lice are vectors for the disease; when infected lice defecate on the skin of lice-infested soldiers or prisoners, the bacteria can gain entry through small scratches or abrasions in the skin.

The bacteria then multiply and cause a severe febrile illness which is often fatal if not treated. Pringle also coined the term 'influenza'. Scurvy is due to a deficiency in vitamin C that results in weak connective tissue and abnormally fragile capillaries that rupture easily, causing bleeding, anemia, edema, jaundice, heart failure, and death. Scurvy was a huge problem in sailors several centuries ago, because of the chronic lack of fresh fruit and vegetables during long sea voyages.

James Lind, a Scottish naval surgeon, suspected that citrus fruits could prevent it based on some anecdotal observations. In Lind conducted what may be the world's first controlled clinical trial on 12 sailors with scurvy. Lind divided the 12 sailors into pairs, and each group received a different treatment sea water, various other concoctions, and lemons and oranges. The two who received lemons and organs were cured, but the others were not.

Lind concluded that his hypothesis was correct, reported his findings, and recommended that sailors receive a ration of lime or lemon juice. Unfortunately, 50 years passed before the British navy acted on Lind's recommendations and began to provide lime juice to sailors at sea. This led to the nickname "Limeys" for British sailors. It is also noteworthy that Lind was able to correctly identify a means of preventing scurvy even though he misunderstood the cause. He believed toxins within the body were normally released through pores in the skin and that scurvy was the result of damp sea air causing pores to close, thus trapping toxins within the body. Francois Broussais was a prominent Parisian physician and a strong proponent of bloodletting with leeches.

He used bloodletting to treat many diseases, including cholera. In the engraving below Broussais can be seen instructing a nursing sister to continue to apply leeches to his patient who is already quite pale from loss of blood.

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