⌚ Irrationality In The Crucible

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Irrationality In The Crucible

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The Crucible by Arthur Millerहिंदी में समझें

In Salem, personal vengeance, paranoia and fear, rather than grief and illness, is what escalates the social panic. Satan, when referred to in the Bible, is thought of as the evil one, the tempter, the wicked one. To the people of Salem, the Devil is the adversary of God and an invisible threat. Martha Corey has done nothing particularly adversarial, she merely reads books that are not approved of by her neighbours, but she finds herself charged as a witch. The end of Act One and Act Three of the play show just how infectious a group mentality can be. Justice is not delivered by this legal system. All of the action takes place inside a burnt-out, derelict theatre. This serves to create an atmosphere of confinement for the audience, encouraging them to reflect on the stifling experience of the patients.

Act 1 highlights his uncertainty and distance from the world of the asylum. Whereas by Act 2, we see Lewis become more invested in the patients and the asylum, as his relationships with the other characters grow. Metatheatre means that the play draws attention to its distance from reality. This contrast also helps Lewis to come to terms with his valuation of love over war, which is at odds with the common opinions of his society.

Nowra encourages his audience to accept both the complexity of people and of life, which begins with accepting your own reality. During the time he spends with the patients, however, Lewis experiences a turning point in his understanding and perception of people. At the beginning of the play, Lewis states that his grandmother was in an asylum. Therefore, he subconsciously allows himself to be influenced by them, just as he influences them. This contradicts the traditional views surrounding the unproductivity of the mentally ill and instead highlights their value and worth.

Therefore, Nowra warns against dismissing individuals who are mentally ill, instead highlighting their capacity to garner change and therefore be productive and valuable members of society. This again further reinforces his role as a bridge between society and the asylum and his connection to its patients , and he ends up embodying the role. Like Fernando, Lewis is unfaithful to his partner. While still in a relationship with his girlfriend Lucy, Lewis becomes intimate with a patient, Julie.

Nowra uses his unfaithfulness as evidence of the indiscriminate nature of infidelity — it is not restricted only to women. Girlfriend and roommate of Lewis, Lucy cannot understand why Lewis is directing a play about love when thousands are dying in the war. She has an affair with Nick, who shares similar beliefs — that politics and the Vietnam War protest are more important than anything else.

The flippant nature with which she regards her affair with Nick as purely sexual is also reflective of her lack of value towards love. Thus, Nowra portrays Lucy as a personification of the societal norms of the s — she is political, into free love and challenges traditional notions of femininity. Furthermore, it is ironic that Lucy and Lewis have similar names. An experienced student director, roommate and friend of Lewis who is heavily involved in the moratorium a protest against the Vietnam War.

Lewis later discovers that Lucy and Nick are having an affair. He views life as a series of transactions and values activities based on the immediate benefit that they bring him. Everyone swears it exists, but no one has seen it. Meanwhile, Don Alfonso manipulates everyone. Julie later reveals that she has a girlfriend who she would prefer to be with, confirming that both men and women are unfaithful in relationships, despite whatever values they may claim to have. Nowra considers many perspectives of love and fidelity, without offering a definitive opinion.

Therefore, Nowra shows that communication and truthfulness are needed for healthy, and reciprocal, relationships. Nowra suggests that love is complex and cannot be fully understood or tamed , instead portraying it as akin to madness. As love is universal, this view ties in nicely with his non-judgmental perspective on madness and insanity. The line between sanity and insanity is explored through the juxtaposition of the patients and society.

As scientific developments have now informed us, these environments often failed to assist their patients. The use of electric shock therapy, for example, frequently led to severe, long-term negative effects upon patients. Although each patient has a mental flaw, all possess interesting opinions and beliefs on different matters. Instead, he suggests that insanity is imposed on people through the judgment of others.

Nowra also attempts to blur the lines between sanity and insanity to emphasize the indiscriminate nature of madness. Overall, Nowra portrays insanity as a matter of perspective , rather than an objective diagnosis. He refuses to define madness, instead depicting it as somewhere on the spectrum of human behaviour. In doing so, he critisises traditional perspectives of sanity and insanity and instead encourages his audiences to consider the complexity of madness. As shown through Ruth who struggles to pretend like she is having real coffee on stage, it is difficult for some to distinguish reality from illusion , even if it is clear to everyone else.

For others, they may willingly refuse the truth and succumb to an illusion. Lewis deluded himself into believing that Lucy was faithful, when all signs such as Nick residing in the same home and Nick and Lucy spending time together indicated that Lucy was, in fact, blatantly disloyal. Through participating in the play, which is an illusory form of reality, the patients are able to explore their views on love and commitment. Ultimately, the behaviour of characters such as Roy and Ruth encourages us to consider the reliability or unreliability of our own perceptions. Alongside this, Nowra stresses the importance of being able to accept your own reality , as he shows that characters who fail to do so, also fail to experience personal growth e.

Roy, Julie. The setting of a burnt-out theatre depicts the miserable environment in which the patients of mental institutions are forced to live. As they are ostracised by the community, a lack of care and support is shown through the rejected and deteriorating theatre. Nowra uses this to symbolise the futility of surface-level treatments such as medication and isolation of mental illnesses, and how we should instead focus on seeing the person behind the illness.

However, Nowra also uses the theatre as a symbol of hope. Despite its desolation, it is in the theatre that Lewis feels safe to grow and develop. The kiss itself represents Lewis becoming more comfortable with himself and his increasingly counter-cultural views. The mythical creature is a representation of women, beautiful and enchanting, capturing men such as the god Apollo with its voice. This reflects the power of women to attract men.

This is a representation of their modern beliefs that circulate around politics and war. Nowra also uses the lights to represent the hope for change that Lewis brings to the patients, and vice versa. Light is also used to directly juxtapose the chaos and desperation that darkness brings. In this instance, their desire for each other and the chaos that ensues is liberating for Lewis, as it enables him to come to terms with what he truly values. Now it's your turn!

Give these essay topics a go. These ABC components are:. To ensure that you stay on topic, it is best to include a paragraph or paragraphs that explore characters other than Lewis and their development. Contention: Nowra encourages his audience to reconsider their perspective on the mentally ill by highlighting their capacity to not only change themselves, but enact change in others.

Topic Sentence 3: Furthermore, as an outsider, Lewis assists the patients in their development, acting as their connection to the real world and ultimately providing a space for them to grow and flourish. Let's get started. How to embed quotes in your essay like a boss. For many students, writing creative pieces can be slightly daunting. For some, it is about unleashing the writer within as the boundaries and thematic constraints that exist in Text Response are lifted.

For others, it can be an opportunity to discover new writing styles, branching out from the generic T-E-E-L structure. Writing in an imaginative style allows you to draw from your own morals, views and feelings. You can weave in personal anecdotes, experiences, and metaphorical language which gives one's writing that pizazz and individualist factor! Alternatively, you can step into different personas. For example, for the topic of conflict, I can write as an injured army medic, a doctor, a foreign correspondent and a war photographer. However, imaginative writing also has many pitfalls students tumble into do not despair; you can get out of it!

Great imaginative pieces are not only graded on how good your story telling skills are. More importantly, your teachers would be grading on the palpable links to the themes of the text and prompt you have been given. In Year 11, when I wrote an imaginative piece, I went overboard with the flowery metaphorical language. So, those radical and out-of-the box ideas and views you have in relation to the text can now be used. For example, the overarching themes in Every Man In This Village Is A Liar encompass the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, inequality the unequal status of women in Middle East , the effect of war on the physical body and the human psych and, how the media portrays war and violence.

The starting point to planning any context piece is to use quotes and ideas within your text. Infer meaning from those quotes and main ideas and ask yourself:. So, here's an example of planning a creative piece. Two of my favourite quotes from Life of Galileo are:. In essence, this conveys the overarching theme of science vs. Their fear of change, pioneering and gaining of new knowledge stems from the prospect of chaos if society's entrenched values are uprooted. I interpreted this as 'ignorance is not bliss' and instead, it breeds fear in people. In the context of our modern society, religion and science still maintain an intriguing and tumultuous relationship.

As the advancement of technology and ethics are not at equilibrium, this is where controversy arises. Conversely, we now have to consider whether this relates to the prompt:. Is it deemed humane to potentially change a person's character? At what personal cost will this have? A lot of students believe that the reading and creating essay is exactly the same as the old context essay. However, there is a significant difference! While a creative context essay does not have to link to the text in any way and only needs to explore a certain idea e. The easiest way to write a creative response that links clearly to the text is to write about a scenario that is related to the plot line.

You can do this by writing a continuation of the storyline i. In this way, your response will be completely original and still demonstrate an understanding of the world of the text. When creating your response, be aware of the features present in your text such as characters, narrative, motifs etc that you can use in your own essay. For example, if the text is narrated from a first-person perspective, you may also mimic this in your essay. You may also include motifs from the text into your own response.

But be careful when making decisions about structure, conventions and language. If the text is written in very formal and concise language, it is probably not a good idea to use slang. Similarly, if the text is a play, structuring your response as a script might be a better choice than writing a poem! Lastly, remember that whilst it is a creative response, your purpose is NOT to tell a nice story but to explore the ideas, values and messages left by the author!

There will always be various interpretations regarding these values, and you can express your understanding of the text through your portrayal of certain characters, or through the events in your response. For example, if you were studying Measure for Measure and wanted to explore how human nature cannot be restrained or limited by law and punishment, you could write a continuation of the play in which the city of Vienna has reverted to its original state of moral decay.

Creative essays are great because they offer interesting and unique stories; however, there is one common downfall that occurs in writing. Some students create pieces that are too straightforward. Rather than using vocabulary, imagery and symbolism to express a point, they simply write down a statement that sums up what they wish to say. Your aim is to invite the reader to experience the story through your words. Little wrinkles appeared around her bright eyes, her dimples made an appearance that dug into her cheeks as a big grin emerged to show her perfect teeth. Show: Guilt throbbed inside her as she stared at the weeping children. Her heart pounded against her chest, her hands trembling beside her still body, her brain screaming at her to do something.

Show: I hear my breathing; heavy, and rapid. I shut my eyes tightly. I can feel goosebumps running up my arms and down my back. Finally, have fun and enjoy the process of planning a creative narrative, let your imagination run a little wild and rein it in with your knowledge! Hopefully these tips were helpful and you are now more confident and informed on the Reading and Creating response! The linear film, co-written by de Heer and Gulpilil, tells the story of Charlie, a middle-aged Aboriginal man living in the town of Ramingining. Much to his demise, Charlie subsequently becomes ill and is admitted to hospital in Darwin. After discharging himself from the hospital, Charlie is quickly arrested for assaulting a policeman. Through his individual plight for survival amidst illness and poverty, de Heer presents profound political commentaries on this very pertinent social issue, spanning decades in Australian history.

The film's critical acclaim upon its release in was the impetus in prompting conversations and debates about the politics of Indigenous Australians. The autobiographical memoir by Robyn Davidson, recounts her courageous miles trek across Australia, beginning from Central Australia towards the Indian ocean. In the effort to escape the monotony of her daily life, Davidson travels to her first destination -- Alice Springs -- in to start preparations. In the 2 years she spends there, she learns how to train camels and live minimally, the former proving to be a challenge. Despite her vehement will to refuse any kind of donation or financial help, Davidson eventually accepts a writing deal in partnership with National Geographic, providing the much-needed funds to confirm her departure.

It's through this deal that she meets Rick Smolan, whom under the conditions of her deal has been recruited to photograph this journey - an unsettling compromise for Davidson which she ruminates on frequently in the novel. With her beloved dog Diggity and her camels, Davidson traverses the Australian landscape, discovering more about herself, her country and the people. This is particularly important when it comes to essay writing, because you want to know that you're coming up with unique comparative points compared to the rest of the Victorian cohort! I don't discuss this strategy in detail here, but if you're interested, check out my How To Write A Killer Comparative. I use this strategy throughout my discussion of themes here and in a later section, Sample Essay Plan.

Charlie, drawing on Gulpilil's own experiences, becomes profoundly alienated from his Ramingining community to the extent where he serves no major function in the community life. Charlie is alienated both physically and figuratively, not only does he live in a makeshift hut on the outskirts of town, but he is separated from the Aboriginal community in this town and resents the fact that white Australians have assumed power over his land. He is evidently neglected from the wider society, which causes much of the internal and external conflict he experiences in the film, an ordeal which many within the Indigenous minorities can empathise with.

Removing himself from a town permeated by imperial powers provides him with an opportunity to restore his lost sense of self-autonomy. De Heer is intending to reveal the difficulty of assimilation for Aboriginal Australians. He also highlights the importance of human connection and relational harmony for individuals. I have difficulty pronouncing foreign names. Robyn Davidson views complete isolation as a way to detach herself from the commercialism and expectations of modern-day Australia, to connect with nature and to challenge her own beliefs of herself. For her, complete solitude in this journey is a private and personal gesture designed to intentionally preserve the sanctity of the trip. The act of breaching this solitude is what Davidson sees as an egregious debasement of the sacredness of the journey, allowing it to be objectified by the eyes of the public.

In addition to this, isolation signifies liberation and freedom from a society laden with rigid expectations, Smolan acts as a constant reminder of these external responsibilities. Davidson experiences alienation from the wider society, being a confident, decisive woman trekking independently and defying the limitations imposed on her sex. She also repeatedly expresses her sense of alienation when entering Aboriginal communities and although she is sensitive to the impression she gives, she acknowledges her persistent feeling as an outsider. Davidson is aware of the divide between these two cultures that have resulted from a history of inequality and oppression.

In Tracks , Davidson also demonstrates the need for meaningful connections, however she sources this from her animal companions and nature. De Heer uses this depiction of Charlie, to serve as a wider embodiment of the difficulty for the Indigenous people to assimilate and conform to the western lifestyle. He repeatedly rejects the life of subordination and compliance under the government laws, which as shown in the film has forced many of the Indigenous people to neglect their own traditions and way of life for example, they must now eat unhealthy fast foods to survive and go through school.

His act of abandoning the car with his belongings and parting with almost nothing in his possession is significant in demonstrating his defiance of the imposition of western culture and his journey for self-reliance. De Heer depicts how conforming to an oppressive society is detrimental and praises the self-transformative effects of embracing individualism rather than blindly conforming. Is this your land? Fing bastards. I have my own supermarket! And this is my country! I can dance with it! Her bold, dauntless approach towards pursuing this journey, specifically as a single, young woman was radically counter-cultural to the perception of women in the s as delicate and docile individuals.

Ultimately, Davidson strongly asserts the need for resistance, particularly where there is the expectation for conformity, as well as her experience, is revealing of the cleansing and liberating feelings of embracing individualism rather than conforming. The laconic and monotonous pace of the film is suggestive of a more deeply rooted issue surrounding the identity distortions experienced by Aboriginals, even to the present day.

This internal battle is psychologically taxing for Charlie, as he encounters many contradictions: receiving welfare payments, only to have to give them away to his family, and so he goes without food and later becomes hungry, only to be denied the opportunity to hunt for his own food. Fulfilling one culture means rejecting the other, and freedom in one means rebellion in the other. Thus, Charlie sees social transgression as his only choice of refashioning his own identity. De Heer reveals how freely establishing a secure sense of identity and belonging in their culture is critical in the lives of these individuals, however, the long-term damage that western society has inflicted has made this almost impossible.

As a solitary female, challenging the restrictions of her sex and exposing herself to unpredictable surroundings, she can curate her own identity as a progressive, post-colonial feminist, seizing and capitalising on the autonomy she has. Furthermore, Davidson is determined to rediscover her place in respect to the desertland, educating herself about the native biodiversity and most importantly, the native people. She demonstrates a deep understanding of the distorted identity and loss of belonging for the Aborigines at the hands of imperial white forces and is sensitive to the damage that has been inflicted. Above all, Davidson gains a renewed, stable sense of identity and belonging through her resistance to the imperial Australian racist mentality, challenging the male-orientated culture.

However, she is also confronted by the reality of this breakdown of identity within the Aboriginal communities. They were letting me into their world. They asked me if I wanted to dance. The significance of nature to the Aboriginal people is at the core of this film. Charlie embodies this connection through his escape to the Australian wilderness. This first acts as a fresh alternative to the restrictive, repressive lifestyle within his government-intervened community, given.

It's an opportunity to rebel against the western lifestyle and restore his traditional way of life, which leaves him feeling free, happy and powerful. However, his struggle to adjust to this change is indicative of the corruption of the intrinsic link between the people and the land. The harmonious, symbiotic relationship that the Indigenous people once had with the land has deteriorated; having been essentially poisoned through the introduction of a progressive white society. De Heer confronts the audience with the consequences of this irreversible separation through the illness and poverty that the Aboriginal people must endure. The connection to nature seen in Tracks serves several functions for Davidson.

Contrary to the majority of attitudes of the time, Davidson can recognise the sanctity of the Australian land and is determined to learn about and experience this connection between the Aboriginal people and their environment. Even further, her battle to survive and adapt to the unpredictability of the desert is the ultimate test of endurance, which Davidson acknowledges enables lasting self-transformation and consolidates to her the true majesty and reverence of nature. Light, power, space and sun. And I was walking into it. I was going to let it make me or break me. They have an awesome grandeur that can fill you with exaltation or dread, and usually a combination of both.

It is everything -- their law, their ethics, their reason for existence. Like in any comparison, it is important to understand some of the key events that were occurring at the time of both the text and the film. While Tracks and Charlie Country are set more than 3 decades apart, the issue of Aboriginal rights is still equally as important in both settings. In Tracks , the s saw many progressive milestones in Aboriginal history. Later, saw the Aboriginal Land Rights Act, which allowed the Indigenous people to assume ownership of land that was acknowledged to be rightly theirs.

Many of these legislative changes were indicative of a larger-scale shift in attitudes towards the fairer treatment of Aborigines. While the oppression and racism continued, it was individuals like Robyn Davidson who pioneered the way for greater change and equality. Following reports of child sexual abuse and neglect, the Howard Government unleashed national forces to remote Indigenous communities in the effort to act as law enforcement and impose alcohol and drug restrictions.

The s was a critical time for women's rights in Australia. At this point in time, after the first wave enabled women to vote, the second wave of feminism was moving through the nation. Women all across Australia were now fervently advocating for their own autonomy and freedom in the workplace and at home; their efforts directed more to dismantle the rigid social structures and expectations that were demanded from them. Davidson is an avid proponent for this cause and demonstrates a tactful and astute understanding of her image as a white, middle-class woman. She openly reiterates her distaste for the sexist remarks and misogynistic caricatures she faces and is determined to confound the restrictions placed on her sex of being a domesticated and weak female.

Overall, Davidson is promoting the principles of breaking through societal expectations, however, also reveals the many challenges she encounters in doing so. It can be a bit daunting trying to compare techniques in a novel to those in a film. In this instance, it is crucial to first look at the idea you are comparing. Now, let's look at how Robyn Davidson and Rolf de Heer achieve this, albeit in different manners. De Heer communicates this premise of freedom, however, does this by featuring a variety of diegetic sounds of the biodiversity in which Charlie finds himself.

Another example is how intimacy with protagonists is edified. De Heer uses sustained, intimate close up shots and at many times breaks the fourth wall by having Gulpilil look directly at the camera. On the other hand, Davidson employs colloquial language and is liberal with her use of expletives in order to convey a casual, conversational mood between herself and the reader. Anthropomorphism in Tracks is the act of attributing human traits or behaviours to a god, animal or object. For Davidson, companionship with animals comes easier than with humans presuming this stems from her perception of society as problematic and grossly flawed.

Directors are intentional in the type of cinematography they employ; therefore it is crucial to observe the context in which these shots take place in order to enrich the analysis. How are the characters portrayed compared to their surroundings? Compared to others? How are they interacting with these elements? Both Davidson and de Heer assert that individualism is necessary for the protagonists, who find themselves marginalised from the wider population. Through their respective journeys to independence, Robyn and Charlie achieve a sense of empowerment through identity self-refashioning , as well as they express their disapproval of the toxic institutions of society. However, the text and the film also demonstrate how at times, embracing individualism can present challenges to those who pursue it.

Ultimately, Davidson and de Heer commend those who do not fully conform to society. Robyn sees the trip as a demonstration to herself of the shedding of the traditional image of white, middle class woman:. Robyn adamantly condemns the deeply entrenched racism of Australian culture and sympathises with the Aborigines and their hardship. Her determination to learn about the Aboriginal people is an attempt to overcome the wedge that has been driven between the two communities:.

Charlie becomes increasingly resistant against the traditions and policies of the government institutions. Charlie is constantly shut down when embracing the ways of his culture; ultimately submitting to individualism also unveils his dependency on white society. To what extent do you agree? Discuss the ways in which the environment assists the protagonists in their journey for self-discovery.

How to Write a Killer Comparative. Reading and Comparing Tracks into the Wild. Compare the Pair- A guide to structuring a reading and comparing essay. The link between your contention and topic sentences in relation to the prompt. Master Reading and Creating. You [men] can do almost anything you care to think of. Now I know what it feels like to want and I will give anything to have it' p. I have to leave the room. Blam, splashed his brains all over the road. A sad end. Best behaviour in front of my father, children all brought up in the church by him. It has a silver chain threaded through a hole in the middle. Instead I concentrate on the scene the scene in front of me so I can remember it later. The theme of family is a recurring one that develops over time.

The juxtaposition of family life in this way allows the reader to see how such factors like wealth, class and reputation can affect the family dynamic especially within the war period. The idea of family is strained by the pressures of war because with many families' sons and husbands away it left the other family members to adopt other roles - not only physically, but the conventional emotional roles of traditional families of the time are redistributed, specifically within the Westaway household. Jordan highlights the controversial issues of premarital sex, abortion and the rights of women within the mid 20th and early 21st century.

Indeed, it is this theme of women that becomes inextricably linked with the effect of a damaged reputation. The issue of abortion is later revisited when Charlotte becomes pregnant in the s, where the contrast between the time periods becomes evident; while unplanned pregnancy is greatly stigmatised in the s, the s offers Charlotte a far wider array of options. Within the parameters of her text, Jordan articulates how men conform or reject masculine tropes in an effort to fit into society. Toughness, bulling and unsavory activity are presented as the characteristics of a man through such depictions of Mac and his gang. In its connection to the war period, the novel partly focuses on the notion that in order to be classified as a man he must first go through struggle and hardship as presented in the group of strangers taunting Jack, ultimately bullying him into certain ideals of masculinity which prove toxic and consequential - Jack dies as a result.

The derogative slang used for the Japanese represents a lack of understanding and fear the bombing of Darwin and attack on Sydney left many feeling particularly vulnerable to the Japanese. Exacerbated by the fact that Japanese culture was not widely understood and was often misrepresented, the Japanese were stereotyped as brutal and inhuman. Over the course of the novel, attitudes towards Asia dramatically shift especially within the early s of Stanzi and Charlotte's generation. The philosophical ideas of the east are often referenced by characters like Charlotte as she draws on them to make sense of her own complex life. The novel sees another shift in ideology represented through Alec as his generation's perception turns to a more commercial view.

Asian culture has earned a place in mainstream media and western life without such gruesome and violent connotations as were previously held during the time of World War II. When you think about post-apocalyptic science fiction stories, what kind of thing comes to mind first? Maybe an alien invasion, Pacific Rim style monsters perhaps, and almost always the mad scramble of a protagonist to stockpile resources and protect their loved ones from the imminent chaos and destruction—these are tropes which are tried and tested in this genre. She interrogates central questions about human society, inviting readers to consider what human qualities can endure even an apocalypse, what qualities are timeless.

Tracing his origins from obscurity to fame, Mandel juxtaposes his philandering and untrustworthy behaviour with repeated attempts to be a better person, or perhaps just be more true to himself, before his death. Arguably equally important in legacy is his first wife, Miranda Carroll , whose comics lend the novel its title. Her comics survive her in the years following the Flu, and are a source of escape and purpose for others just as they had been for herself.

Both of these characters come into contact with Jeevan Chaudhary , a paparazzo and journalist who regularly follows Arthur though his career, photographing Miranda in a vulnerable moment before her divorce, and booking an interview with Arthur years later as he plans to leave his second wife Elizabeth Colton. We see Jeevan struggle with his purpose in life throughout the novel, though it can be said that he ultimately finds it after the Flu, when he is working as a medic.

As the Flu first arrives in America, Clark is just leaving for Toronto, but a Flu outbreak there causes his flight to be redirected to Severn City Airport, where he and others miraculously survive in what will become a key setting of the novel. We experience the present mostly through the perspective of Kirsten Raymonde , a performer who survived the Flu as a young child. To enable Time Lords to travel through time without ill effects, Rassilon created a genetic link called the Rassilon Imprimatur.

Rassilon created a living weapon known as the Pariah , which he used for missions throughout time and space. Rassilon gave the Pariah independent thought, but this proved to be a mistake, as the Pariah developed a mind of its own and rebelled against him. Rassilon banished the Pariah from Gallifrey, then created Shayde , a more evolved version of the Pariah incapable of independent thought.

The Pariah would cause the creation of the Threshold. Using temporal technology, Rassilon studied the future. He learned of the Divergence , a race which would eclipse his within ten thousand millennia. Fearing this future, he created a self-replicating, biogenic molecule which he sent back in time to seed all habitable planets in Gallifrey's galaxy. This ensured all intelligent life evolved in the form of the Gallifreyans. He trapped the Divergence in their own timeline , which Rassilon sealed into a time loop. PROSE : The Scrolls of Rassilon The Dark Tower he had built in its centre had a link to the Eye of Harmony through which it could Time Scoop individuals from all over time and space, who would be made to fight to the death for the privilege of being returned home.

Many tried to get him to stop the games, but only after a group of Cybermen nearly destroyed the Dark Tower did Cardinal Pandad succeed in persuading him of the foolishness of his actions, as, had the Cybermen succeeded in destroying the Tower, they might have released the power of the Eye of Harmony, and, through exposure to it, gained the same immortality and temporal abilities as the Time Lords.

After decreeing the three fundamental Laws of Time to prevent any of his successors failing as he had, Rassilon, now in his thirteenth incarnation, abdicated from the Presidency in favour of Pandad , further shaping the political system of Gallifrey by creating the positions of Chancellor and Castellan. The former individual would be told of the location of the Great Key to the Eye of Harmony, but on the condition that they never become Lord President. However, all of this contradicted the research of another Time Lord historian , who claimed that the Game and Death Zone predated Rassilon's Presidency — and, indeed, that he had made his name, and earned his seat on the High Council , by campaigning for its abolition.

The Tomb of Rassilon in the Dark Tower. TV : The Five Doctors. Rassilon died whilst in his thirteenth incarnation, PROSE : Pandoric's Box discovering to his dismay that the regeneration cycles granted by the Eye of Harmony only allowed for twelve renewals. Gaining the trust of Chancellor Azmeal , Rassilon, once more desperate to extend his life and power, created the Matrix , in which the minds and memories of dying Time Lords would be recorded. Though Azmeal presented the project to the High Council as a "psychic history book", the truth was that the disembodied Time Lords would remain conscious within the Matrix, with Rassilon first among them as the leader of the Matrix Lords.

Many rumours surrounded Rassilon's death or lack thereof. Time Lord history credited Rassilon with creating the traditions of their society; for instance, after Rassilon had a nightmarish vision of a dictatorial, imperialistic Gallifrey, he was said to have created the principles of non-intervention. After his physical death , Rassilon stayed active in the Matrix. TV : The End of Time. TV : Hell Bent. By the time of the foundation of the Time Lords' civilisation, Rassilon already proved to be able to stop a Gallifreyan fleet from falling into a black hole ; moreover, he could spring bolts of power arc from his fingertips, a power called electro-direction.

During the final days of the Last Great Time War , with the apparent help of the Gauntlet of Rassilon , he was able to provoke the molecular dispersal of another Time Lord and to revert the effects of an Immortality Gate on a planetary scale, just with a gesture ending the Master's control and was also capable of developing various scenarios and outcomes and his scheme was only foiled by the Doctor's timely intervention. A broken statue of Rassilon in the Cloister Room. Many important Gallifreyan artefacts bore their name, with Rassilon imbuing the items with powers to protect their legacy and enhance Rassilon's own mystique.

TV : The Invasion of Time. The Black Scrolls of Rassilon , also later obtained by Borusa, contained forbidden, arcane secrets. The fabled Ring of Rassilon , however, capable of conferring a form of immortality upon the wearer, resided in the Tomb of Rassilon in the Dark Tower located in the Death Zone. These artifacts, like many institutions in Time Lord society, were named "of Rassilon", in such number and with such unfailing consistency that the Eighth Doctor once reflected that Joanna Harris "couldn't imagine how much [he'd] had it in here with the This, That and the Other of Rassilon". Rassilon was a charismatic leader who was capable of inspiring their people. The General himself stated that, while Rassilon eventually became corrupt, he was once "a good man".

Despite this, Alice Obiefune noted that Rassilon remained cunning enough to prevent the Doctor from leaving the Capitol, suspecting that Rassilon knew that the Doctor was from the future. When the Doctor was thought lost however, Rassilon appeared genuinely horrified and offered Alice his personal apologies for the tragedy. Controversially, Rassilon ordered the release of a virus that wiped out a large proportion of the Gallifreyan population, while allowing the survivors to regenerate. PROSE : The Scrolls of Rassilon He also discovered how to become immortal without having to use regenerations to survive, but believed that the secret was too dangerous to share, and thus kept it to himself, TV : The Five Doctors and instituted the non-interference policy after dreaming of a future Time Lord empire that used its power to suppress the weak of the universe.

After the loss of Omega, Rassilon wept for him, with the Other musing that Rassilon's later actions were born out of love. After punishing Borusa for attempting to claim immortality, Rassilon offered immortality to the First, Second, Third and Fifth Doctors, and admitted that they had "chosen wisely" after they declined, and sent them back to where they belonged afterwards, TV : The Five Doctors even giving the First Doctor complete control of his TARDIS to allow him to attend to unfinished business before his regeneration as a show of gratitude.

Rassilon was also manipulative, trying to trick the Eighth Doctor into destroying the Divergence in the belief that they were too different to live, AUDIO : Neverland , Zagreus and using the Master as a link between Gallifrey and the rest of the Universe which allowed him to temporarily free Gallifrey from the time lock. By the end of the Time War, Rassilon had become ruthless, power-hungry and insane, being willing to destroy the whole of creation rather than accept the end of the Time Lords.

He planned to change himself and the Time Lords into beings of pure consciousness, free of physical bodies and the ravages of time, in his Ultimate Sanction. Rassilon had also grown in his pettiness, vaporising the Partisan for speaking against his desire to continue the Time War, and taunting the Tenth Doctor with how "the final act of [his] life [would be] murder" after a failed attempt to fool the Doctor into an alliance with him.

Even as he was dragged back into the war, Rassilon made one last hateful attempt to kill the Doctor. Rassilon talks with the Twelfth Doctor. Following the end of the Time War, Rassilon retained his arrogance, believing himself superior to others simply for being Lord President, and showed no remorse for locking the Twelfth Doctor in his confession dial to get the information he wanted. He also showed his sadistic side by gloating how he could remove the Doctor's regenerations one at a time.

TV : Hell Bent After his banishment, Rassilon was driven to teaming up with the Cybermen to survive and reclaim Gallifrey, unhinged to the point of casting off the "Time Lord purity" he'd championed throughout his reign. His ego grew ever more, so much so that he redecorated the Panopticon with statues of his former incarnations , openly proclaiming that the Time Lords "[belonged] to [him]". After being betrayed by his allies however, Rassilon gained a sense of shame and humility, horrified at how he'd given the Cybermen so much power and finally making peace with the Doctor. Once these events were undone, the Doctor hoped that Rassilon would retain this development. The " Rivers of Rassilon " was a swear.

Statues of Rassilon's past incarnations. Rassilon's first incarnation had pale eyes. Their second incarnation was younger and fair-haired. Rassilon was later an older man with a bushy beard when the Eye of Harmony was activated and Gallifreyan Year 0 was established. At the time of the Eternal War against the Great Vampires , a later incarnation was young and beardless. This incarnation regenerated into an older one that was strong and athletic and had a full beard. This incarnation once again regenerated into a younger body with no beard; he was handsome and jocular. Their thirteenth incarnation had a bushy moustache that connected to mutton-chop sideburns as well as long, arched eyebrows.

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