✎✎✎ Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society

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Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society

Intersecting oppressions Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society lead to ambivalence or to a sense of self in which preferences pull in competing directions e. Morris, Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society. Rouen was Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society city in crisis, beset by Character Analysis Of Dimmesdale In The Scarlet Letter violence, crop failures, a Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society revolt, and an outbreak A Lucky Child Analysis plague. Many believe that Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society is a noble profession, so teachers should do their jobs for love of their profession and the good Bethany Wiggins: Summary their students, not for money. International Labour Review. Alice Dreger, too, has employed Foucault to theorize intersex For a measurement to be useful it has Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society be reliable and valid.

Fundamentals of Marx: Alienation

Many of the indicators of extreme social exclusion, such as poverty and homelessness, depend on monetary income which is normally derived from work. Social exclusion can be a possible result of long-term unemployment, especially in countries with weak welfare safety nets. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 10 is also an example of global initiatives aimed at promoting social inclusion for all by Some religious traditions recommend excommunication of individuals said to deviate from religious teaching, and in some instances shunning by family members. Some religious organizations permit the censure of critics.

Across societies, individuals and communities can be socially excluded on the basis of their religious beliefs. Social hostility against religious minorities and communal violence occur in areas where governments do not have policies restricting the religious practise of minorities. In gay men , results of psycho-emotional damage from marginalization from a heteronormative society include suicide and drug addiction. Scientists have been studying the impact of racism on health. Amani Nuru-Jeter , a social epidemiologist at the University of California, Berkeley and other doctors have been hypothesizing that exposure to chronic stress may be one way racism contributes to health disparities between racial groups. In , there was research focused on possible connections between exclusion and brain function.

The effect of social exclusion have been hypothesized in various past research studies to correlate with such things as substance abuse and addiction, and crime. The problem of social exclusion is usually tied to that of equal opportunity , as some people are more subject to such exclusion than others. Marginalisation of certain groups is a problem in many economically more developed countries where the majority of the population enjoys considerable economic and social opportunities. The marginal, the processes of marginalisation, etc. Social inclusion, the converse of social exclusion, is affirmative action to change the circumstances and habits that lead to or have led to social exclusion.

As the World Bank states, social inclusion is the process of improving the ability, opportunity, and worthiness of people, disadvantaged on the basis of their identity, to take part in society. Social Inclusion ministers have been appointed, and special units established, in a number of jurisdictions around the world. It was headed by Monsignor David Cappo and was serviced by a unit within the department of Premier and Cabinet. Cappo sat on the Executive Committee of the South Australian Cabinet and was later appointed Social Inclusion Commissioner with wide powers to address social disadvantage.

Cappo was allowed to roam across agencies given that most social disadvantage has multiple causes necessitating a "joined up" rather than a single agency response. It also included major funding to revamp mental health services following Cappo's "Stepping Up" report, which focused on the need for community and intermediate levels of care [44] and an overhaul of disability services. Upon defining and describing marginalization as well as the various levels in which it exists, one may explore its implications for social work practice. Mullaly describes how "the personal is political" and the need for recognizing that social problems are indeed connected with larger structures in society, causing various forms of oppression amongst individuals resulting in marginalization.

A non-judgmental and unbiased attitude is necessary on the part of the social worker. The worker may begin to understand oppression and marginalization as a systemic problem, not the fault of the individual. Working under an anti-oppression perspective would then allow the social worker to understand the lived, subjective experiences of the individual, as well as their cultural, historical and social background. The worker should recognize the individual as political in the process of becoming a valuable member of society and the structural factors that contribute to oppression and marginalization Mullaly, The social worker should be constantly reflexive , work to raise the consciousness, empower , and understand the lived subjective realities of individuals living in a fast-paced world, where fear and insecurity constantly subjugate the individual from the collective whole, perpetuating the dominant forces, while silencing the oppressed.

Some individuals and groups who are not professional social workers build relationships with marginalized persons by providing relational care and support, for example, through homeless ministry. These relationships validate the individuals who are marginalized and provide them a meaningful contact with the mainstream. There are countries, Italy for example, that have a legal concept of social exclusion.

In Italy, " esclusione sociale " is defined as poverty combined with social alienation , by the statute n. The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action , a document on international human rights instruments affirms that " extreme poverty and social exclusion constitute a violation of human dignity and that urgent steps are necessary to achieve better knowledge of extreme poverty and its causes, including those related to the program of development, in order to promote the human rights of the poorest, and to put an end to extreme poverty and social exclusion and promote the enjoyment of the fruits of social progress.

It is essential for States to foster participation by the poorest people in the decision making process by the community in which they live, the promotion of human rights and efforts to combat extreme poverty. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the concept in probability, see Marginal distribution. Form of social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society. General forms. Related topics. Allophilia Amatonormativity Anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms Bias Christian privilege Civil liberties Cultural assimilation Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Heteronormativity Internalized oppression Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Medical model of disability autism Multiculturalism Net bias Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Polyculturalism Power distance Prejudice Prisoner abuse Racial bias in criminal news Racism by country Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social model of disability Social stigma Stereotype threat The talk White privilege Woke.

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Philosophy portal. International Labour Review. Social exclusion: A concept in need of definition?. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, pp. Institute on Public Safety and Social Justice. Adler University. Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 22 October Archived from the original on Five faces of oppression. Adams, Ed. New York: Routledge. Homelessness, human rights, and social exclusion". Australian Journal of Human Rights. S2CID Academicus International Scientific Journal. Joel-Gijsbers and C. Vrooman Hoff June Social Indicators Research. ISSN Homelessness, human rights and social exclusion" PDF.

The British Journal of Social Work. PMID Barely an essay at all, the work is a one-page document consisting of three diagrams, three definitions, and two lemmas. Although it had little immediate impact beyond a small circle of mathematicians, it was nevertheless a breakthrough contribution to the emerging new field of projective geometry. It states that if six points are situated on a conic section an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola , and if these points are then joined by line segments to form a hexagon, then if the sides of this hexagon are projected beyond the section, the pairs of opposite sides will meet in three points all of which lie on a straight line. In this case all the points lie entirely outside the ellipse.

Eventually these manuscripts were turned over to the great German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz for his evaluation and use. In the Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli, testing a hypothesis suggested by Galileo, took a glass tube closed at one end and filled it with mercury. He then inverted the tube, open end down, into a bowl also containing mercury and watched as the mercury in the tube dropped slightly leaving a vacant space at the top. Contrary to the prevailing scientific view upheld by Aristotelians and Cartesians alike according to which a vacuum in nature is a physical impossibility, Torricelli surmised that the space at the top of the tube was indeed a vacuum and that it was created by the pressure of the external air, which exactly balanced the pressure exerted by the column of mercury inside the tube.

Just obtaining the required apparatus posed a huge challenge. Scientists of the era typically had to design, specify, oversee the production of, test, and of course pay for their own equipment. Pascal did all that and then went to work conducting his own experiments and demonstrations. Confident of his results, he went on tour to demonstrate his hypothesis, which he was able to do using tubes of different length and diameter and a variety of liquids. He published his findings in a short pamphlet New Experiments concerning the Vacuum Using two identical tubes, the team measured the levels of mercury at a base point in the town. Then, with a portion of the party staying behind to monitor the mercury level in one tube, which remained at the home base, Florin and the rest of the party ascended the mountain with the other tube and measured the mercury level at various elevations.

It was found that the level of mercury in the mobile or test tube varied inversely with the altitude. Meanwhile, the mercury level in the stationary or control tube never varied. Repeated experiments produced the same conclusive results: the level of mercury was due to air pressure, which also has the ability to create a vacuum. It is not on this occasion only that, when the weakness of men has been unable to find the true causes, their subtlety has substituted imaginary causes to which they have given specious names filling the ears and not the mind. The rule [of scientific method] is never to make a decisive judgment, affirming or denying a proposition, unless what one affirms or denies satisfies one of the two following conditions: either that of itself it appear so clearly and distinctly to sense or to reason, according as it is subject to one or the other, that the mind cannot doubt its certainty, and this is what we call a principle or axiom, as, for example, if equals are added to equals, the results are equal; or that it be deduced as an infallible and necessary consequence from such principles or axioms.

Everything satisfying one of these conditions is certain and true, and everything satisfying neither is considered doubtful and uncertain. We pass decisive judgment on things of the first kind and leave the rest undecided, calling them, according to their deserts, now a vision , now a caprice , occasionally a fancy , sometimes an idea , and at the most a happy thought ; and since it is rash to affirm them, we incline rather to the negative, ready however to return to the affirmative if a convincing demonstration brings their truth to light….

For all things of this kind [that is, hypothetical entities] whose existence is not manifest to sense are as hard to believe as they are easy to invent. Many persons, even among the most learned men of the day, have opposed me with this same substance [that is, rarified air or some comparable ethereal matter] before you but simply as an idea and not as a certain truth , and that is why I mentioned it among my propositions. Others, to fill empty space with some kind of matter, have imagined one with which they have filled the entire universe, because imagination has this peculiarity that it produces the greatest things with as little time and trouble as little things; some have considered this matter as of the same substance as the sky and the elements, and others of a different substance, as their fancy dictated, for they disposed of it as of their own work.

But if we ask of them, as of you, that you show us this matter, they answer that it cannot be seen; if we ask that it make a sound, they say it cannot be heard, and so with all the remaining senses; and they think they have done much when they have convicted others of powerlessness to show that it does not exist by depriving themselves of all power to show that it does. Pascal later composed, but never published, two detailed monographs that were discovered among his manuscripts after his death: a Treatise on the Equilibrium of Liquids and a Treatise on the Weight of the Mass of Air.

It is in recognition of his important work in the study of fluid mechanics that a standard unit of pressure is today known as the pascal Pa , defined as a force equal to 1 Newton per square meter. Suppose, Pascal was asked, that you are given 24 rolls of a pair of dice. What is the probability of your throwing double sixes at least one time? This problem asks, if a wager game is terminated before it has been completed, how should the contestants divide the stakes? For example, suppose that A and B are playing a winner-take-all game in which a point is scored on every try and the winner is the first player to reach ten points. How should the stakes be divided if the game is terminated after A has 7 points and B has 5? Pascal developed solutions to these and other problems relating to the calculation of gambling odds and in an exchange of letters shared his insights with the great Toulouse mathematician Pierre de Fermat.

Together the two correspondents effectively founded the modern theory of probability. He sent a copy of this document to Fermat during their correspondence, but it was never published until after his death. He was simply interested in demonstrating its fascinating properties and powers. Figure 2. Pascal calls the square containing each number in the array a cell. He calls the third diagonal side of the triangle the base. Cells along any diagonal row are called cells of the same base. The first diagonal row consisting of the number 1 is row 0. The second diagonal row 1, 1 is row 1; and so on. The number value of each cell is equal to the sum of its immediately preceding perpendicular and parallel cells.

Furthermore, the number value of each cell is also equal to the sum of all the cells of the preceding row from the first cell to the cell immediately above the target cell. As Pascal demonstrates, to find the answer we would move perpendicularly down to the nth row and then move diagonally r cells. For example, for 5 C 4, we would go perpendicularly down to row 5 and then move diagonally 4 cells and find that the number of combinations is 5. Similarly, if we calculate for 6 C 3 ,we would move down 6 rows and then diagonally 3 cells and find that the answer is And so on.

In another section of the Treatise, Pascal explains how to use the Triangle to solve the Problem of Points. Problem of points: A needs 3 more points, B needs 5 more points. Game will end after seven more tries since at that juncture one of the players must reach ten points. Then sum the remaining 3 items in the row and divide that total by the sum of all the items in the row. Expressed as a percentage, A receives Now realize that there are an infinite number of such triangles, each stretching out vertically and horizontally to infinity, with each diagonal base in the structure containing within it a theoretically infinite subset of ever-smaller triangles. Such is the paradoxical notion of infinity, a concept that astounded and haunted Pascal, and which has teased, baffled, and intrigued a long list of theorists and commentators from Nicholas of Cusa and Giordano Bruno to Bertrand Russell and David Foster Wallace.

Although the idea of infinity can fill the imagination with dread, it can also, as Pascal points out at the conclusion of his treatise Of the Geometrical Spirit , provide us with a true understanding of nature and of our place in it:. But those who clearly perceive these truths will be able to admire the grandeur and power of nature in this double infinity that surrounds us on all sides, and to learn by this marvelous consideration to know themselves, in regarding themselves thus placed between an infinitude and a negation of extension, between an infinitude and a negation of number, between an infinitude and a negation of movement, between an infinitude and a negation of time.

From which we may learn to estimate ourselves at our true value, and to form reflections which will be worth more than all the rest of geometry itself. Imagine a point P on the circumference of a revolving circle. A cycloid is the curve described by P as it rolls along a straight line. The challenge is to discover and prove the area of this curve geometrically. Pascal worked out his own solution and then, as was common practice at the time, issued a public challenge to fellow mathematicians. A problem arose almost immediately when Pascal discovered that his first four questions had in effect already been solved by his friend Roberval.

The contest was therefore reduced to the final two questions, a change that, unfortunately, was not made clear to all the contestants. In addition, some contestants protested that the time limit was unreasonably short. Christian Huygens and Christopher Wren published solutions, but did not compete for the prize. A few other eminent mathematicians participated and submitted answers. However, Pascal, finding none of the submissions fully satisfactory, eventually revealed his own solutions and declared himself the winner.

Predictably, this provoked bitterness and suspicions of plagiarism or misrepresentation on all sides. Excellence in science and mathematics, he argued, requires both capabilities. Of the many great natural philosophers of the 17 th century — a group that includes both theoreticians and experimentalists and such illustrious names as Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Boyle, Huygens, and Gassendi — Pascal arguably was the one who came closest to articulating a coherent, comprehensive, durable philosophy of science consistent with and comparable to the standard view that prevails today, except that he came up short.

As Desmond M. Clarke has argued, Pascal was torn between his love of geometric proof and pure logical demonstration on the one hand and his skeptical, pragmatic instincts in favor of down-to-earth experimentalism and empiricism on the other. As a result he seemed trapped in a kind of philosophical limbo. Torricelli tubes and of brass fittings engineered to nearly microscopic precision. Pascal fully understood that once a hypothesis is tested and confirmed, the problem of determining the true cause of the phenomenon still remains and becomes itself a matter for further conjecture.

For example, take his prediction, experimentally confirmed, that the level of mercury in a Torricelli tube will decline as altitude increases. Pascal claimed that this phenomenon was due to the weight of air, though he knew that other factors might also explain the same effect. Indeed, for all he knew, an invisible emanation from the god Mercury may have influenced his results. However, as he himself and his fellow experimentalists certainly knew, there can be nearly as many reasons why an expected result does not occur, such as defective apparatus, lack of proper controls, measurement errors, extraordinary test circumstances, etc, as there are explanations for a result that occurs as expected.

Apparently in his haste to champion the new science of experimentalism against its critics, both Cartesian and Scholastic, Pascal wanted to at least be able to say that if experiments cannot conclusively prove a given hypothesis, then they may at least be able to disprove it. Que puis-je savoir? Anticipating Kant, he wondered with what limitations and with what level of assurance we can confidently say we know what we believe we know. Pascal has been plausibly labeled an empiricist, a foundationalist, even a positivist and a skeptic.

The confusion is understandable and is due largely to the fact that his epistemological views are complex and seem in certain respects equivocal or inconsistent. For example, he accepts the rule of authority in some areas of knowledge, such as ancient history, while opposing and even forbidding it in others, especially physical science. In a perfect world human reason would be percent reliable and hold sway. Presumably, Adam, prior to the Fall, had such a pristine and certain view of things, such that there was a perfect congruency or correspondence between his inner perceptions and the outer world.

Pascal believes that the axioms and first principles of math, geometry, and logic constitute knowledge of this kind. They are perceived directly by reason and along with any consequences that we can directly deduce from them represent the only knowledge that we can know infallibly and with certainty. Everything else is subject to error and doubt. Reason also has a role in this process. It guides our observations and assists us in the forming of hypotheses and predictions. It is reason that also judges and approves or disapproves the final results, though it does so on the basis of empirical evidence, not deductive logic or some preconceived system.

In the Preface to his Treatise on the Vacuum , Pascal declares that reason and sense alone must rule and authority has no place in the establishment of scientific truth. Authority is to be respected, he says, in history, jurisprudence, languages, and above all in matters of theology, where the authority of Scripture and the Fathers is omnipotent. But, he argues that in the case of physical science reverence for the ancients can actually cloud the truth and impede the advancement of knowledge, especially when such reverence is, blind, misplaced, or overly devout. Those whom we call ancient were really new in all things, and properly constituted the infancy of mankind; and as we have joined to their knowledge the experience of the centuries which have followed them, it is in ourselves that we should find this antiquity that we revere in others.

But what exactly he means by such phrases he never clearly explains. The heart has its reasons, which reason does not know. We feel it in a thousand things. I say that the heart naturally loves the Universal Being, and also itself naturally, according as it gives itself to them; and it hardens itself against one or the other at its will. You have rejected the one, and kept the other. Is it by reason that you love yourself? Such a faculty, if it is indeed instinctive, would presumably be inborn and thus either a part of our basic nature and something that all humans share or a special gift or grace bestowed by God to the elect.

Heart-knowledge would then be like some faint glimmer or trace of the instantaneous, clairvoyant understanding that the unfallen Adam was believed to enjoy in Paradise. In any case, the notion of a raison du Coeur remains a critical crux in Pascal studies and posed a mystery and challenge to his readers. Fideism can be defined as the view that religious truth is ascertainable by faith alone and that faith is separate from, superior to, and generally antagonistic towards reason. Whenever the term shows up in a religious or philosophical discussion, it is typically in conjunction with a list that includes names like Tertullian, Luther, Montaigne, Kierkegaard, Wittgenstein, and William James.

Based on the foregoing definition of fideism, Pascal does not fit into such a list, though the tendency to include him is understandable. Kekule discovered the shape and structure of the benzene molecule in a dream. Though his means of discovery was non-rational, what he discovered was quite reasonable and proved true. The notion of mathematical infinity baffles us in the same way. Of particular significance in this respect is the paragraph in which Pascal, in an observation that seems to echo Tertullian almost as much as St.

Who then will blame Christians for not being able to give reasons for their beliefs, since they profess belief in a religion which they cannot explain? They declare, when they expound it to the world, that it is foolishness, stultitiam ; and then you complain because they do not prove it! If they proved it, they would not keep their word; it is through their lack of proofs that they show they are not lacking in sense.

But, again, not being able to prove or give a convincing explanation for a belief is not quite the same thing as saying that the belief is incompatible with or contrary to reason. Conspiracy theories are typically lamely supported and impossible to prove, but they are seldom implausible or illogical. Moreover, it is not just a fideistic claim, but a perfectly orthodox Catholic view and indeed a widely observable fact that reason has limits; that it is indeed, as Pascal claims, unreasonable to trust reason too much.

The metaphysical proofs for the existence of God are so remote from human reasoning and so involved that they make little impact, and, even if they did help some people, it would only be for the moment during which they watched the demonstration, because an hour later they would be afraid they had made a mistake. And this is why I shall not undertake here to prove by reasons from nature either the existence of God, or the Trinity or the immortality of the soul, or anything of that kind: not just because I should not feel competent to find in nature arguments which would convince hardened atheists, but also because such knowledge, without Christ, is useless and sterile.

Even if someone were convinced that the proportions between numbers are immaterial, eternal truths, depending on a first truth in which they subsist, called God, I should not consider that he made much progress towards his salvation. That is the portion of the heathen and Epicureans. Again it can be asked as it was in the case of his alleged affiliation with fideism whether he belongs in such a list. For in his view human beings enter the world with a largely defined and determined nature and a destiny that is partly charted, partly free. We are broken creatures and would be hopelessly lost if it were not for divine grace.

If such a view of the human condition is incompatible with existentialism, then Pascal is no existentialist. On the other hand, if Augustine and Kierkegaard or for that matter any Christian thinker can be considered existentialists in some broad sense, then it is hard to see why Pascal might not also qualify. Like Augustine and Kierkegaard, he emphasizes the priority of the individual and the deeply personal character of our choice to believe. Like them, he values and personally exemplifies an extreme inwardness , indeed at times displays an almost fanatical absorption in his mental and spiritual life. The Confessions , with its focus on the self and personal identity, and especially on the self as a cumulative record, inscribed in memory, of our life-altering decisions and events, is conceivably the first existentialist text.

That human life without God is wretched and that the human condition is marked by restlessness, ennui, and anxiety is an observation common to all three writers. Another common feature of their work is the recurrent image of a vast gulf or abyss. Augustine compares the human soul to a deep abyss and likens it to the Nothingness preceding the Creation Genesis Without the light of God, he suggests, we are but a dark emptiness. Kierkegaard argues that human freedom necessarily entails a constant sense of anxiety, and his image of our condition is that of a person standing on the edge of a dark precipice. In the Confessions Augustine describes the long ordeal that eventually leads to his conversion. Instead, he must begin a new spiritual test and journey — that of actually living a Christian life.

Similarly, Kierkegaard never wrote of being a Christian, but always of becoming one. He regarded an authentic Christian life as a constant trial and task. Like Augustine, Pascal places even harsher spiritual demands on himself after his conversion. And like Kierkegaard, he believes that true Christianity is an ever-striving imitatio Christi , a continual remaking of oneself in the image and spirit of Jesus. It is not he who changes, but we who change. It is not our knowledge of him that increases, but our world that alters and our attitudes towards it.

For some reason Eliot assumed that our knowledge of Pascal was basically complete eighty years ago and that modern scholarship would do little to alter or augment our understanding of his life and work. On this point he was quite mistaken. He remains a fixed point against which we are challenged to measure the sincerity and durability of our own values and beliefs. Krailsheimer has remarked that what we find when we read Pascal is actually something that we discover about ourselves In effect, what both Krailsheimer and Eliot are suggesting is that ultimately there is not one Pascal, but many — possibly as many as there are readers of his texts.

In addition, every modern system of intra-urban or inter-urban shuttle transportation also owes a debt to the philosopher, who first conceived such a system and oversaw its original implementation in the city of Paris. His combination of wit, irony, and aphorism, his ease and clarity, his air of someone skilled both in urbane conversation and erudite technical debate was to a large extent already present and on dazzling display in Montaigne.

The same features reappear in the writings of Voltaire and the philosophes. And today, thanks largely to Pascal, these attributes have become a part of French literary tradition. Pater rightly called him the intellectual equivalent of lightning. David Simpson Email: dsimpson depaul. Blaise Pascal — Blaise Pascal was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, inventor, and theologian. Deum meum et Deum vestrum. Ton Dieu sera mon Dieu. Final Years After his conversion Pascal formally renounced, but did not totally abandon, his scientific and mathematical studies. During the period , under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, he produced a series of 18 public letters attacking the Jesuits and defending Arnauld and Jansenist doctrine.

Literary and Religious Works a. The five propositions can be stated as follows: 1. It is heresy to say that we can either accept grace or resist it. Christ did not die for everyone, but only for the elect. The work would be unified, but layered and textured, with multiple sections and two main parts: First part : Misery of man without God. Second part : Happiness of man with God. Proved by nature itself. Between Misery and Grandeur In effect diversions prevent us from acknowledging our essential misery. Mathematical and Scientific Works a.

Conic Sections Pascal made his first important mathematical discovery and published his first article, the Essay on Conics , at the age of sixteen. Experiments on the Vacuum In the Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli, testing a hypothesis suggested by Galileo, took a glass tube closed at one end and filled it with mercury. Although the idea of infinity can fill the imagination with dread, it can also, as Pascal points out at the conclusion of his treatise Of the Geometrical Spirit , provide us with a true understanding of nature and of our place in it: But those who clearly perceive these truths will be able to admire the grandeur and power of nature in this double infinity that surrounds us on all sides, and to learn by this marvelous consideration to know themselves, in regarding themselves thus placed between an infinitude and a negation of extension, between an infinitude and a negation of number, between an infinitude and a negation of movement, between an infinitude and a negation of time.

Figure 3: Cycloid Imagine a point P on the circumference of a revolving circle. Philosophy of Science and Theory of Knowledge a. Philosophy of Science Of the many great natural philosophers of the 17 th century — a group that includes both theoreticians and experimentalists and such illustrious names as Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Boyle, Huygens, and Gassendi — Pascal arguably was the one who came closest to articulating a coherent, comprehensive, durable philosophy of science consistent with and comparable to the standard view that prevails today, except that he came up short. Theory of Knowledge Que-sais-je? Reason and Sense In a perfect world human reason would be percent reliable and hold sway.

Fideism Fideism can be defined as the view that religious truth is ascertainable by faith alone and that faith is separate from, superior to, and generally antagonistic towards reason. References and Further Reading a. George Pearce, tr. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, Mesnard, Jean, ed. Paris: Seuill, Pascal, Blaise. Thoughts, Letters, and Opuscules. Wright, tr. New York: Hurd and Houghton, Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Roger Ariew, trans. The Davis-Moore thesis, though open for debate, was an early attempt to explain why stratification exists. The thesis states that social stratification is necessary to promote excellence, productivity, and efficiency, thus giving people something to strive for. Davis and Moore believed that the system serves society as a whole because it allows everyone to benefit to a certain extent.

Conflict theorists are deeply critical of social stratification, asserting that it benefits only some people, not all of society. For instance, to a critical sociologist, it seems problematic that after a long period of increasing equality of incomes from World War II to the s, the wealthiest 1 percent of income earners have been increasing their share of the total income of Canadians from 7. In , the median income earner in the top 1 percent of incomes earned seven times more than the median income earner in the other 99 percent. In , the median income earner in the top 1 percent earned ten times more.

Rather than creating conditions in which wealth trickles down, tax cuts and neoliberal policies tremendously benefit the rich at the expense of the poor. This is an example of the way that stratification perpetuates inequality. Contrary to the analysis of functionalists, huge corporate bonuses continued to be awarded even when dysfunctional corporate and financial mismanagement of the economy in led to the global financial crisis. Nor is it the case that corporate elites work harder to merit more rewards. Over the period of increasing inequality in income, the only group not working more weeks and hours in the paid workforce is the richest 10 percent of families Yalnizyan Critical sociologists try to bring awareness to inequalities, such as how a rich society can have so many poor members.

Many critical sociologists draw on the work of Karl Marx. During the 19th-century era of industrialization, Marx analyzed the way the owning class or capitalists raked in profits and got rich, while working-class proletarians earned skimpy wages and struggled to survive. With such opposing interests, the two groups were divided by differences of wealth and power. Marx saw workers experience deep exploitation, alienation, and misery resulting from class power Marx He also predicted that the growing collective impoverishment of the working class would lead them, through the leadership of unions, to recognize their common class interests.

With the abolition of private property i. Marx did not live see the state socialist systems in the Soviet Union and elsewhere that called themselves communist but ended up replacing capitalist-based inequality with bureaucratic-based inequality. Today, while working conditions have improved, conflict theorists believe that the strained working relationship between employers and employees still exists. Capitalists own the means of production, and a neoliberal political system is in place to make business owners rich and keep workers poor. Moreover, the privileged position of the middle classes has been steadily eroded by growing inequalities of wealth and income.

Some sociologists argue that the middle class is becoming proletarianized , meaning that in terms of income, property, control over working conditions, and overall life chances, the middle class is becoming more and more indistinguishable from the wage-earning working class Abercrombie and Urry Nevertheless, according to critical sociologists, increasing social inequality is neither inevitable nor necessary. Symbolic interactionism is a theory that uses everyday interactions of individuals to explain society as a whole.

Symbolic interactionism examines stratification from a micro-level perspective. In most communities, people interact primarily with others who share the same social standing. It is precisely because of social stratification that people tend to live, work, and associate with others like themselves, people who share their same income level, educational background, or racial background, and even tastes in food, music, and clothing.

The built-in system of social stratification groups people together. Housing, clothing, and transportation indicate social status, as do hairstyles, taste in accessories, and personal style. This marks individuals from an early age by such things as knowing how to wear a suit or having an educated manner of speaking. In fact the children of parents with a postsecondary degree are 60 percent likely to attend university themselves, while the children of parents with less than a high school education have only a 32 percent chance of attending university Shaienks and Gluszynski Cultural capital is capital also in the sense of an investment, as it is expensive and difficult to attain while providing access to better occupations.

Bourdieu argues that the privilege accorded to those who hold cultural capital is a means of reproducing the power of the ruling classes. Cultural capital becomes a key measure of distinction between social strata. In the Theory of the Leisure Class , Thorstein Veblen described the activity of conspicuous consumption as the tendency of people to buy things as a display of status rather than out of need. Conspicuous consumption refers to buying certain products to make a social statement about status.

Some people buy expensive trendy sneakers even though they will never wear them to jog or play sports. All of these symbols of stratification are worthy of examination by an interactionist. Davis-Moore thesis a thesis that argues some social stratification is a social necessity. What Is Social Stratification? Stratification systems are either closed, meaning they allow little change in social position, or open, meaning they allow movement and interaction between the layers.

A caste system is one in which social standing is based on ascribed status or birth. Class systems are open, with achievement playing a role in social position. People fall into classes based on factors like wealth, income, education, and occupation. Social Stratification and Mobility in Canada There are three main classes in Canada: the owning class, middle class, and traditional working class. Social mobility describes a shift from one social class to another. Class traits, also called class markers, are the typical behaviours, customs, and norms that define each class. Global Stratification and Inequality Global stratification compares the wealth, economic stability, status, and power of countries as a whole. By comparing income and productivity between nations, researchers can better identify global inequalities.

Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification Social stratification can be examined from different sociological perspectives—functionalism, critical sociology, and symbolic interactionism. The functionalist perspective states that inequality serves an important function in aligning individual merit and motivation with social position. Critical sociologists observe that stratification promotes inequality, such as between rich business owners and exploited workers.

Symbolic interactionists examine stratification from a micro-level perspective. What factor makes caste systems closed? Global Stratification and Inequality Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification What class describes you? Social Stratification and Mobility in Canada Mark Ackbar made a documentary about social class and the rise of the corporation called The Corporation. The filmmakers interviewed corporate insiders and critics. The accompanying website is full of information, resource guides, and study guides to the film. September Rogers, Ted and Robert Brehl. Ted Rogers: Relentless. Toronto: HarperCollins. Boyd, Monica. Kashmeri, Zuhair. October Kerbo, Harold. Boston: McGraw Hill. Marquand, Robert. Capital, Labour and the Middle Classes.

Beeghley, Leonard. Upper Saddle River. NJ: Prentice Hall. Corak, Miles et al. Bonn, Germany. DeVine, Christine. London: Ashgate Publishing Co. Gilbert, Dennis. Average Annual Percentage Wage Adjustments. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. Johnstone, Alex and Tom Cooper. May 1. McArthur, Greg. November McDonald, David. McFarland, Janet. Retail Council of Canada. Warner, Brian. NY: Oxford University Press. Williams, Raymond. Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. New York: Oxford University Press. Yalnizyan, Armine. March 1. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.

Millennium Project. Rostow, Walt W. Bourdieu, Pierre. NY: Routledge. Davis, Kingsley and Wilbert E. Marx, Karl. Manifesto of the Communist Party. Shaienks, Danielle and Tomasz Gluszynski. Statistics Canada. Tumin, Melvin M. Figure 9. Skip to content Main Body. Learning Objectives 9. Differentiate between open and closed stratification systems Distinguish between caste and class systems Understand meritocracy as an ideal system of stratification 9. Global Stratification and Inequality Define global stratification Describe different sociological models for understanding global stratification Understand how studies of global stratification identify worldwide inequalities 9. Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification Understand and apply functionalist, conflict theory, feminist, and interactionist perspectives on social stratification.

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, who is in line to be king of England, married Catherine Middleton, a so-called commoner, meaning she does not have royal ancestry. Section Quiz 9. They are run by secretive governments. People cannot change their social standings. Most have been outlawed. They exist only in rural areas. What factor makes class systems open?

They allow for movement between the classes. People are more open-minded. People are encouraged to socialize within their class. They do not have clearly defined layers. Which of these systems allows for the most social mobility? Caste Monarchy Endogamy Class 4. Which person best illustrates opportunities for upward social mobility in Canada? First-shift factory worker First-generation college student Firstborn son who inherits the family business First-time interviewee who is hired for a job 5. Which statement illustrates low status consistency?

A suburban family lives in a modest ranch home and enjoys a nice vacation each summer. A single mother receives welfare and struggles to find adequate employment. A college dropout launches an online company that earns millions in its first year. A celebrity actress owns homes in three countries. Middle class Upper class Lower class No specific class 8. An individual moves up the class ladder An individual moves down the class ladder A large group moves up or down the class ladder due to societal changes A member of a family belongs to a different class than his or her siblings 9. Which of the following scenarios is an example of intergenerational mobility?

A janitor belongs to the same social class as his grandmother did. An executive belongs to a different class than her parents. An editor shares the same social class as his cousin. A lawyer belongs to a different class than her sister. Ranks society members into categories Destroys competition between society members Allows society members to choose their social standing Reflects personal choices of society members Which graphic concept best illustrates the concept of social stratification?

Pie chart Flag poles Planetary movement Pyramid Is an outdated mode of societal organization Is an artificial reflection of society Serves a purpose in society Cannot be justified Denied the opportunity to obtain Encouraged to train for Often fired from Forced into Which statement represents stratification from the perspective of symbolic interactionism? Men often earn more than women, even working the same job. After work, Pat, a janitor, feels more comfortable eating in a truck stop than a French restaurant. Doctors earn more money because their job is more highly valued. Teachers continue to struggle to keep benefits such as good retirement plans.

Must labour alone, without companionship Do not feel connected to their work Move from one geographical location to another Have to put forth self-effort to get ahead Are ambitious Fund social services Spend money wisely Get rich while workers stay poor. Short Answer 9. Track the social stratification of your family tree. Did the social standing of your parents differ from the social standing of your grandparents and great-grandparents? What social traits were handed down by your forebears? Are there any exogamous marriages in your history?

Does your family exhibit status consistencies or inconsistencies? What defines communities that have low status consistency? What are the ramifications, both positive and negative, of cultures with low status consistency? Try to think of specific examples to support your ideas. Review the concept of stratification. Now choose a group of people you have observed and been a part of—for example, cousins, high school friends, classmates, sport teammates, or coworkers. How does the structure of the social group you chose adhere to the concept of stratification?

Social Stratification and Mobility in Canada Which social class do you and your family belong to? Are you in a different social class than your grandparents and great-grandparents? Does your class differ from your social standing and, if so, how? What aspects of your societal situation establish you in a social class? What class traits define your peer group? For example, what speech patterns or clothing trends do you and your friends share?

What cultural elements, such as taste in music or hobbies, define your peer group? How do you see this set of class traits as different from other classes either above or below yours? Provide examples of class inequality and of status inequality in your community. Are there examples in which class inequality differs from status inequality? What is the significance of these differences? Global Stratification and Inequality Why is it important to understand and be aware of global stratification? Make a list of specific issues that are related to global stratification.

For inspiration, turn on a news channel or read the newspaper. Next, choose a topic from your list and look at it more closely. Who is affected by this issue? How is the issue specifically related to global stratification? Compare a family that lives in a grass hut in Ethiopia to a Canadian family living in a trailer home in Canada. Do you agree with Davis and Moore?

Critics point out that the structural-functional Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society is Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society critical Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society Toilet Flapper Research Paper based on social class, race, ethnicity and gender. According to functionalism, different aspects of society exist because they serve a needed purpose. Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society are exploring how the absence Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society presence of these individuals affect youth's perceptions of their own potential contributions and life options. Global model that divides the world into three categories: Fist World rich industrial countriesSecond World less industrialized socialist countries and Analysis: Hymn To The Nile Third World Non-industrialized poor countries. The development of agrarian technology expanded human choices and sparks urban Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society but it also makes social life more individualistic and impersonal. Perspectives on Politics. It has been suggested that strong substantive theories conflate autonomy defined as self Theoretical Perspectives On Alienation In The Prison Society with morally Mc Vitie Market Segmentation -rule Benson a,

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