⒈ Effects Of Stereotyping In Society

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Effects Of Stereotyping In Society

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Negative impact of stereotyping on relationships within a society.

A few years after The New York Times Magazine article on Asian Americans being the model minority was published, Asian Americans formed their own movement , in which they fought for their own equal rights and resolution of their own specific social issues. It would be modeled after the Civil Rights Movement, thus effectively challenging White America and the social construct of racial discrimination. Those who resisted the emergent stereotype in the ss could not gain enough support to combat it due to its so-called "positive" connotations.

This led many, even within the Asian American community at the time, to view it either as a welcomed label in contrast to years of negative stereotypes, or as a euphemistic stereotype that was no more than a mere annoyance. Many believe that the stereotype comes with more positives than negatives. In contrast, many critics believe that there are just as many negatives as there are positives, or that no stereotype should be regarded as "good," regardless of how "positive" they are intended to be. Scientific studies have revealed that positive stereotypes have many negative and damaging consequences both socially and psychologically.

Suzuki, a researcher of multicultural and Asian American studies at University of Massachusetts Amherst , disagrees with how the media has portrayed Asian Americans. Explaining the sociohistorical background and the contemporary social system, Suzuki argues that the model minority stereotype is a myth. Since the creation of the model minority stereotype, Asian Americans have now exceeded White Americans in terms of education, as well as many other racial and ethnic groups in American society. As of [update] , Asian Americans as a whole have obtained the highest educational attainment level and median household income of any racial and ethnic demographic in the country, a position in which African immigrants , and their American-born offspring, have now started to outperform.

There has been a significant change in the perceptions of Asian Americans. In as little as years of American history, stereotypes of East Asian Americans have changed from them being viewed as poor uneducated laborers to being portrayed as a hard-working, well-educated, and upper-middle-class minority. The economic gap in the standard of living between higher- and lower-income Asians nearly doubled; the ratio of income earned by Asians at the 90th percentile to income earned by Asians at the 10th percentile increased from 6. The model minority model also points to the percentage of Asian Americans at elite universities.

Additionally, Asian Americans go on to win a high proportion of Nobel Prizes. The most highly educated group of Asian immigrants are Taiwanese. Due to the impacts of the model minority stereotype, unlike other minority-serving institutions , Asian American Pacific Islander -serving institutions AAPISI did not receive federal recognition until , with the passage of the College Cost Reduction and Access Act , which federally recognized the existence of AAPISIs, making them eligible for federal funding and designation as minority serving institutions. The model minority label also includes South Asian communities, in particular, Indian Americans , because of their high aggregate socioeconomic success.

According to the census report on Asian Americans issued in by the U. This has resulted in several stereotypes such as that of the "Indian Doctor. Arguably, the model minority stereotype masks the socioeconomic under performance of other Asian American subgroups and the experiences of Southeast Asian American populations in the U. An empirical literature review shows that most of the existing data used to justify the model minority image regarding Asian American academic achievement is aggregated. As a result, this data ignores important differences among individual Asian ethnic groups. According to the U. Census , the overall percentage of people 25 years and older with less than a high school education in the U. For example, only Moving on to higher education, the U.

Census shows that As a result, Southeast Asian American students are often overlooked due to the overwhelming success of their East and South Asian American peers. As cited in a case study, many deficits of Southeast Asian American students' academic achievement can be attributed to the structural barriers of living in an immigrant household. However, certain Southeast Asian ethnic groups have shown greater progress than others within the regional group and resemble the success of other more established Asian Americans. Furthermore, among Southeast Asian American students, Vietnamese American students are recognized as having the highest academic performance, whereas Cambodian American students have the poorest performance.

Despite this progress amongst Southeast Asian American students, the subgroup still struggles economically. Similar to data on academic achievement, information regarding Asian American's economic prospects is frequently aggregated and thus hides the diversity of economic struggles amongst subgroups like Southeast Asian Americans. Media coverage of the increasing success of Asian Americans as a group began in the s, reporting high average test scores and marks in school, winning national spelling bees , and high levels of university attendance. In , the writer Philip K. Chiu identified the prevalence of the model minority stereotype in American media reports on Chinese Americans , and noted the contrast between that stereotype and what he observed as the reality of the Chinese-American population, which was much more varied than the model minority stereotype in the media typically presented.

I am fed up with being stereotyped as either a subhuman or superhuman creature. Certainly I am proud of the academic and economic successes of Chinese Americans. Some are superachievers, most are average citizens, and a few are criminals. They are only human—no more and no less. According to Gordon H. Chang , the reference to Asian Americans as model minorities has to do with the work ethic , respect for elders, and high valuation of education, family and elders present in their culture. Such a label one-dimensionalizes Asian Americans as having only traits based around stereotypes and no other human qualities, such as vocal leadership, negative emotions e.

Another effect of the stereotype is that American society may tend to ignore the racism and discrimination Asian Americans still face. Complaints are dismissed with the claim that the racism which occurs to Asian Americans is less important than or not as bad as the racism faced by other minority races, thus establishing a systematic racial hierarchy. Believing that due to their success and that they possess so-called "positive" stereotypes, many [ who? Racial discrimination can take subtle forms such as through microaggression. For instance, discrimination and model minority stereotyping are linked to Asian American students' lower valuing of school, lower self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms.

Furthermore, the model minority image can be a threat to underachieving Asian American students' academic experience and educational advancement. This is problematic because it creates a barrier for educators to better understand and assist struggling students' educational and mental health needs in order to optimize students' academic experience and social emotional development.

Asian Americans may also be commonly stereotyped by the general public as being studious, intelligent, successful, elitist, brand name conscious, yet paradoxically passive. As a result, higher and unreasonable expectations are often associated with Asian Americans. The model minority stereotype can also contribute to teachers' having a "blaming the victims" perspective. This means that teachers blame students, their culture, or their families for students' poor performance or misbehavior in school. This is problematic because it shifts responsibility away from schools and teachers and misdirects attention away from finding a solution to improve students' learning experience and alleviate the situation.

Furthermore, the model minority stereotype has a negative impact on the home environment. Parents' expectations place high pressure on students to achieve, creating a stressful, school-like home environment. Parents' expressed worry and frustration can also place emotional burdens and psychological stress on students. Some educators hold Asian students to a higher standard. The connotations of being a model minority mean Asian students are often labeled with the unpopular " nerd " or "geek" image.

The model minority stereotype is emotionally damaging to many Asian Americans, since there are unjustified expectations to live up to stereotypes of high achievement. The pressures from their families to achieve and live up to the model minority image have taken a tremendous mental and psychological toll on young Asian Americans. The model minority image can lead underachieving Asian American students to minimize their own difficulties and experience anxiety or psychological distress about their academic difficulties.

Asian American students also have more negative attitudes toward seeking academic or psychological help [65] due to fear of shattering the high expectations of teachers, parents, and classmates. Overall, the model minority stereotype has negative effects on underachieving Asian students in both their home and school settings. Additionally, to better address struggling students' educational and mental health needs, educators can regularly check in with students and engage in culturally responsive teaching, aimed to understand students' unique circumstances and educational needs. One possible cause of the higher performance of Asian Americans as a group is that they represent a small population in America so those who are chosen to move to America often come from a selective group of Asians.

The relative difficulty of emigrating and immigrating into the United States has created a selective nature of the process with the U. Cultural factors are thought to be part of the reason why East Asian Americans are successful in the United States. East Asian societies often place more resources and emphasis on education. In traditional Chinese social stratification , scholars were ranked at the top—well above businessmen and landowners. This view of knowledge is evident in the modern lifestyle of many East Asian American families, where the whole family puts emphasis on education and parents will make it their priority to push their children to study and achieve high marks.

Although pressure is often perceived as a way to help East Asian American descendants achieve greater success, it can be used as a way to provide better income and living status for families. Others counter this notion of culture as a driving force, as it ignores immigration policies. Many worked for low wages in the harshest conditions. Confucian values were not seen as a key to success. It was only until the Immigration and Nationality Act of changed the way Asians were seen, as Asians with higher education backgrounds were selectively chosen from a larger pool of the Asian population.

Further, it has also been argued the myth of the Confucian emphasis on education is counterfactual. It also implies Asians are a monolithic group, and ignores the fact that the most educated group of Asian immigrants in the U. In the s, one Ivy League school found evidence it had limited admissions of Asian American students. Because of their high degree of success as a group and over-representation in many areas such as college admissions , most Asian Americans are not granted preferential treatment by affirmative action policies as are other minority groups.

Some schools choose lower-scoring applicants from other racial groups over Asian Americans in an attempt to promote racial diversity and to maintain some proportion to the society's racial demographics. Often overlooked is the direct contrast of model minorities with African Americans. While scholars of the civil rights era relied on cultural values to describe the varying successes of Asian Americans and African Americans, contemporary scholars have begun to examine the effects of the different types of racism the two ethnic groups experience. Essentially, racism in itself is not monolithic. Instead, it is perpetrated in different ways and different avenues of life in which anti-Black rhetoric often proves to be more harmful to Black personhood than situations involving anti-Asian discrimination.

Additionally, Black African immigrant women make up the highest paid group of women in country. African immigrants and Americans born to African immigrants have been described as an "Invisible Model Minority," primarily as a result of a high degree of success in the United States. Due to misconceptions and stereotypes, their success has not been acknowledged by the greater American society , as well as other Western societies, hence the label of "invisible.

Kefa M. Otiso, an academic professor from Bowling Green State University , who stated that, "because these immigrants come from a continent that is often cast in an unfavorable light in the U. In the U. According to the Census , the rate of college diploma acquisition is highest among Egyptian Americans at In , Of the African-born population in the United States age 25 and older, The overrepresentation of the highly skilled can be seen in the relatively high share of Black African immigrants with at least a four-year college degree. In , 27 percent of the U. Immigrants from several Anglophone African countries were among the best educated: a majority of Black Immigrants from Nigeria, Cameroon, Uganda, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe had at least a four-year degree.

Immigrants from Egypt, where the official language is Arabic, were also among the best educated. This is believed to be due larger percentage of African immigrants have higher educational qualifications than Americans, which results in higher per capita incomes for African immigrants and Americans born to African immigrants. Outside of educational success, specific groups have found economic success and have made many contributions to American society. Many Africans that have seen the social and economic stability that comes from ethnic enclaves such as Chinatowns have recently been establishing ethnic enclaves of their own at much higher rates to reap the benefits of such communities.

Demographically, African Immigrants and Americans born of African immigrants tend to typically congregate in urban areas , moving to suburban areas over the next few generations as they try to acquire economic and social stability. They are also one of America's least likely groups to live in racially segregated areas. African immigrants have even been reported to have lowered crime rates in neighborhoods in which they have moved into.

Thus African immigrants are often much healthier than American-born Black people and Black immigrants from Europe. Cultural factors have been proposed as an explanation for the success of African immigrants. For example, it is claimed they often integrate into American society more successfully and at higher rates than other immigrants groups due to social factors. One being that many African immigrants have strong English skills even before entering the U.

Otiso has proposed another reason for the success of African immigrants, saying that they have a "high work ethic, focus and a drive to succeed that is honed and crafted by the fact that there are limited socioeconomic opportunities in their native African countries," says Otiso. Another possible cause of the higher performance of African immigrants as a group is that they represent a small population in America so those who are chosen to come here often come from a selective group of African people. Despite African immigrants being highly educated many often find it hard to become employed in high level occupations.

Most instead have to work in labor jobs to subsist and maintain a decent life. This desire to succeed is then transferred onto second generation African immigrants. These Americans often report that their families pushed them very hard to strive for success and overachieve in many aspects of society, especially education. African immigrants put a premium on education because of the limited socioeconomic opportunities they experienced in their native countries.

Consequently, they often allocate more resources towards it. This pushing of second generation African immigrants by their parents has proven to be the key factor in their success, and a combination of family support and the emphasis of family unit has given these citizens social and psychological stability which makes them strive even further for success in many aspects of their daily life and society. Many of these American groups have thus transplanted high cultural emphasis on education and work ethic into their cultures which can be seen in the cultures [97] of Algerian Americans , Kenyan Americans , [98] Sierra Leonean Americans , [99] Ghanaian Americans , Malawian Americans , [] Congolese Americans , [] Tanzanian Americans , and especially Nigerian Americans [] and Egyptian Americans.

The Cuban success story is a popular myth that Cuban Americans are all political exiles who have become wealthy in the United States. This story is often used to prove the accessibility of the American dream. African immigrants have experienced success in numerous countries especially Commonwealth countries such as Canada , Australia and the United Kingdom , which have attracted many educated and highly skilled African immigrants with enough resources for them to start a new life in these countries. In the United Kingdom , one report has revealed that African immigrants have high rates of employment and that African immigrants are doing better economically than some other immigrant groups. As of , Nigerian immigrants were among the nine immigrant populations that were above average academically in the UK.

Additionally, many of them hail from the wealthier segments of Nigerian society, which can afford to pursue studies abroad. Nicknamed the 'Wonder Twins', the twins and other members of their family have accomplished incredible rare feats, passing advanced examinations and being accepted into institutions with students twice their age. In Canada , Asian Canadians are somewhat viewed as a model minority, though the phenomenon is not as widespread as it is in the United States. The majority of this is aimed toward the East Asian and South Asian communities.

In New Zealand , Asian New Zealanders are viewed as a model minority due to attaining above average socioeconomic indicators than the New Zealand average, though the phenomenon remains small, underground, and not as widespread compared with their American counterparts. In Israel , Christian Arabs are one of the most educated groups. Maariv has described the Christian Arab sectors as "the most successful in education system," [] since Christian Arabs fared the best in terms of education in comparison to any other group receiving an education in Israel.

Reflections on the Educational Level of Arab Christians in Israel" by Hanna David from the University of Tel Aviv , one of the factors why Israeli Arab Christians are the most educated segment of Israel's population is the high level of the Christian educational institutions. The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics noted that when taking into account the data recorded over the years, Christian Arabs fared the best in terms of education in comparison to any other group receiving an education in Israel. Arab Christians are one of the most educated groups in Israel. The rate of students studying in the field of medicine was higher among Arab Christian students than that of all other sectors. In terms of their socio-economic situation, Arab Christians are more similar to the Jewish population than to the Muslim Arab population.

Due to their business success and cultural assimilation, German Mexicans and Lebanese Mexicans are seen as model minorities in Mexico. More recently, Haitians in Tijuana have been seen favorably by Tijuanenses as model immigrants due to their work ethic and integration into Tijuana society, and have been contrasted with Central American migrants. In the 19th and early 20th century, German immigration was encouraged due to the perceived industriousness of Germans. German Mexicans were instrumental in the development of the cheese and brewing industries in Mexico.

Vietnamese in France are the most well-established overseas Vietnamese community outside eastern Asia as well as Asian ethnic group in France , with roughly , Vietnamese immigrants living in France. A survey in asking French citizens which immigrant ethnic group they believe to be the most integrated in French society saw the Vietnamese being ranked fourth, only behind the Italian, Spanish and Portuguese communities. The educational attainment rate of the Vietnamese population in France is the highest among overseas Vietnamese populations, a legacy that dates back to the colonial era of Vietnam , when privileged families and those with connections to the colonial government often sent their children to France to study.

When the first major wave of Vietnamese migrants arrived in France during World War I , a number already held professional occupations in their new country shortly after their arrival. Similarly to the Vietnamese, the Laotian community in France is one of the most well integrated into the country and is the most established overseas Laotian populace. In Germany the academic success of people of Vietnamese origin has been called "Das vietnamesische Wunder" [] [] "The Vietnamese Miracle". In Burma , Gurkhas of Nepali descent are viewed as a model minority. Gurkhas place a high importance on education, and they represent a disproportionately high share of those with advanced medical, engineering or doctorate degrees in Burma. The People's Republic of China is a multiethnic, multinational state, and the ruling Communist Party officially recognizes 55 ethnic groups within the borders controlled by the People's Republic.

Notwithstanding the successes in integrating the Hui, the 21st century has seen the state confronted with ethnic tension with minority groups seen as less loyal, in particular the Tibetans and the Uighurs, where in both cases, violent reactions to attempts to integrate into the wider Chinese society has resulted in state repression. At the end of the colonial era of the Dutch East Indies now: Indonesia , a community of about , Indo-Europeans people of mixed Indonesian and European heritage was registered as Dutch citizens.

Indos formed the vast majority of the European legal class in the colony. When in the second half of the 20th century the independent Republic of Indonesia was established, the majority of Europeans, including the Indo-Europeans, [] were expelled from the newly established country. Violence aimed towards Indo-Europeans during its early Bersiap period — accumulated in almost 20, deaths. Even though most Indos had never set foot in the Netherlands before, this emigration was named repatriation.

Notwithstanding the fact that Indos in the former colony of the Dutch East Indies were officially part of the European legal class and were formally considered to be Dutch nationals, the Dutch government practiced an official policy of discouragement with regard to the post-WWII repatriation of Indos to the Netherlands. Even though actual aggression against Indos decreased after the extreme violence of the Bersiap period, all Dutch language institutions, schools and businesses were gradually eliminated and public discrimination and racism against Indos in the Indonesian job market continued. In the s and early 21st century the Netherlands was confronted with ethnic tension in a now multi-cultural society. Ethnic tensions, rooted in the perceived lack of social integration and rise of crime rates of several ethnic minorities, climaxed with the murders of politician Pim Fortuyn in and film director Theo van Gogh in The Indo community however is considered the best integrated ethnic and cultural minority in the Netherlands.

Statistical data compiled by the CBS shows that Indos belong to the group with the lowest crime rates in the country. A CBS study of reveals that of all foreign born groups living in the Netherlands, only the Indos have an average income similar to that of citizens born in the Netherlands. Job participation in government, education and health care is similar as well. Another recent CBS study, among foreign born citizens and their children living in the Netherlands in , shows that on average, Indos own the largest number of independent enterprises.

Although Indo repatriates, [] being born overseas, are officially registered as Dutch citizens of foreign descent, their Eurasian background puts them in the Western sub-class instead of the Non-Western Asian sub-class. The impact of a media campaign may be dramatic and farreaching as it is occurring, and perhaps for a short time afterwards.

However, campaigns drawing attention to child abuse will be more effective if they are ongoing Calvert Mass media campaigns have the potential to confront society with the horrific nature of much child abuse. Such campaigns can also educate the public about the many, often co-existing, forms of abuse suffered by children. They can also draw attention to the status of children in society, highlighting children's dependency and vulnerability to abuse and neglect. According to Hall and Stannard 5 : 'The physical and emotional impacts of child abuse are very clear.

However, the long-term loss of productivity through lower achievement levels, unemployment and family dislocation are less apparent. Research shows that the child abuse can also lead to criminal behaviour among young people. These costs must be met by the taxpayer for years to come through increasing [financial] claims as well as health, counselling, welfare, police and prison services. Mass media education and prevention campaigns present a viable means for governments to be seen to be doing something in relation to the problem of child abuse and neglect.

Campaigns may assist not only in the prevention of immediate harm to children and young people but also in allaying the long-term social and economic consequences of child maltreatment. Campaigns must, of course, be backed by supportive services for children, young people and their families. Drawing on the research of Nielson and the Federation of Australian Commercial Television Stations , Sanders, Montgomery and Brechman-Toussaint note that: Australian adults spend about three hours per day watching television; 61 per cent of Australian adults choose television viewing to stay informed and to access news; and An article in The Age in demonstrated the potentially powerful influence of the media on people's attitudes.

Milburn 5 reported on the cancellation, after five days sitting, of a trial against a foster parent charged with the sexual penetration and sexual abuse of an year-old boy in his care. Concerns were raised by the accused's defence lawyer about an Age article describing a television mini-series to be screened on Channel In reply, the judge ordered that the trial be cancelled: '. Clearly, the perceived power of the media, as exemplified in this case, may be used in child abuse prevention campaigns Tomison Krugman notes that in , faced with what they perceived to be a national emergency, the United States Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect '. This view appears to be turning a blind eye to the reality of child abuse and neglect.

Importantly, the literature documenting past and present media campaigns consistently stresses a dual role for the media - to portray the existence of child abuse and to present ways of addressing and preventing it: 'Media prevention needs to provide information about both the problem behaviour and how to deal with it effectively' Sanders et al. As noted above, the success of a child abuse education and prevention campaign will be influenced by available funding, existing support services, and other educational activities, such as prevention programs in schools Calvert ; Donovan ; Scott ; NAPCAN Writing about the impact of a media campaign in the United States designed to increase public action to help maltreated children in addictive families, Andrews, McLeese and Currant made the following recommendations:.

Too often, media messages focus on the nature and extent of the problem without suggesting what can be done to change it. The services system needs to be prepared for the public's response to a media message. Increasing public awareness raises demands for assistance and information. Increased efforts are needed to promote personal ways of helping, without formal system intervention. This is consistent with the 'neighbors helping neighbors' approach recommended by the US Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect With encouragement and information more people might act on their beliefs. The distressing details of the murder in of two-yearold Daniel Valerio at the hands of his mother's de-facto, Paul Aiton, were very briefly outlined in Issues Paper 14 Goddard and Saunders It was noted that the media coverage of Daniel's murder, and of related child protection issues, was the primary force behind the introduction in of laws requiring mandatory reporting by some professionals of child abuse and neglect Goddard and Liddell , ; Mendes Such 'policy development by press release' Goddard and Liddell 24 provides a significant contrast to policies and preventive strategies 'developed through community consultation, research and reflection' Goddard Susan Wilson has observed: 'For advocates, the press is a grand piano waiting for a player.

Strike the chords through a news story, a guest column, or an editorial, and thousands will hear. Working in concert, unbiased reporters and smart advocates can make music together. Press releases are one of the most important primary sources of media news stories Brawley Journalists spend much of their time 'rewriting' press releases Karph and creating stories from written information provided to them by individuals, groups, and organisations. Many news stories are derived from 'facts created for journalists by individuals and bureaucracies' Surette Thus, information provided to media outlets that sheds light on an issue such as child abuse, may occur either in an organised manner through well-researched and planned mass media education and prevention campaigns, or through press releases, opinion pieces, and letters to newspapers focussing on current cases or significant issues or events.

As Brawley 4 states: 'There are abundant opportunities to engage in valuable public information, community education and prevention activities through the print and broadcast media. The media 'can sway hearts and minds. The media can bring pressure to bear on governments. Media coverage of a particular issue may assist in initiating or consolidating attitudinal and behavioural change see Goddard and Saunders As noted in Issues Paper no. A recent example of media-driven action in response to child abuse occurred as a result of a letter sent to a major newspaper. The two-page letter - handed to police five months before Liddy's arrest.

Written anonymously, the author of this letter correctly anticipated the power of the media to advocate on behalf of the victimised children. The actual letter could not be printed in the paper prior to the conviction. Nevertheless, the story two years later emanating from the fact that the letter had been sent to, and acted upon, by the newspaper reveals the sense of achievement the newspaper employees gained from being able to assist in bringing this man to justice.

It also demonstrates the important role of the media as an instigator of political, social or legal action when other avenues may have proven unproductive. This primary prevention campaign used a 'comforting' approach and incorporated a significant mass media component. As outlined in 'More action - less talk! Community responses to child abuse prevention' Tucci, Goddard and Mitchell 9 , the campaign sought to: elicit a commitment from adults to adults to develop safe and non-abusive relationships with children; persuade adults to stop behaving in ways which are harmful to children; educate adults about the important needs of children; and better inform adults about the causes and consequences of child abuse.

The campaign encouraged all adults to: think and view children as a source of hope; understand the developmental variables of children; respect the meaning children give to their experiences; engage positively with the principles of children's rights; and appreciate more fully the capacities and contribution of children to the cultural and emotional life of families and communities. The campaign also addressed: the commonly held belief that children are a cost to society; the perceived suspicion that any application of the notion of children's rights will mean an erosion of parent's rights; and the public's lack of understanding about the extent and nature of child abuse in Australia.

The campaign continued until the end of Asong, written by Van Morrison and performed by Rod Stewart, 'Have I Told You Lately That I Love You', was the focus of a television advertising campaign that aimed to stimulate people's thoughts about the importance and value of children and how this is communicated to them. Television commercials were backed up by press and radio advertisements. In addition to advertising, the campaign sought media attention by involving Tracy Bartram, FOX FM radio personality, as an ambassador for the campaign. Media attention was drawn to the campaign's launch. A free information kit for parents was made available, parent's seminar sessions, featuring Michael Grose, were conducted, and a website made readily available to the public.

The campaign did not receive state or federal funding but relied heavily on in-kind support from individuals and Victorian businesses. Quantum Market Research monitored the effectiveness of the campaign. In May and October telephone interviews were conducted with a representative sample of adults. Public dissemination of research outcomes formed part of the campaign strategy. Tucci et al. While 51per cent of respondents believed the community recognised child abuse as a serious social problem and another 21 per cent believed they accurately understood the extent and nature of child abuse in Australia, this is clearly not the case. Twenty-nine per cent of respondents underestimated the problem by at least 90, reports.

The idea that adults can hurt children is disturbing and likely underpins the belief by 51 per cent of respondents that the community treats this issue seriously, but when asked to account for the extent to which children are being abused by adults, community awareness is sadly lacking. Eighty per cent of respondents strongly supported the need for a campaign against child abuse. Australians Against Child Abuse thus feels confident that the 'Every Child is Important' campaign will significantly influence public attitudes and responses to children and to child abuse. Ongoing research into the impact of the campaign will in itself be valuable in contributing to the debate about the educative and cost effectiveness of mass media campaigns aimed at preventing child abuse and neglect.

Costing three million pounds, it proposes to change attitudes and behaviour towards children, to make it everybody's business to protect children, and to launch new services and approaches Boztas ; Hall As Rudaizky quoted in Hall explains, a pictorial theme of the campaign is people covering their eyes: 'The theme of the eyes being covered is about people not facing up to the reality of what is happening. Our intention was not to shock but to move people into doing something about it. Child abuse is not nice to talk about. It is an upsetting subject but unless we talk about it, we will not end it. These authors highlighted deficiencies in the community's perception of child sexual assault and in the community's knowledge of how to seek help, and what resources are available.

Gaps in knowledge and misconceptions about child sexual abuse appear to persist despite media campaigns such as those conducted in Victoria and New South Wales. In spite of this, both campaigns were evaluated and deemed for the most part to have been successful. The Victorian and New South Wales mass media campaigns sought to draw the public's attention to the sexual assault of children. The Victorian and New South Wales media campaigns comprised television commercials and community service announcements, press advertisements, information booklets, stickers, posters and telephone hotlines.

Apparently, removing the perpetrator rather than the child from the home was not considered either at this time or in this campaign. The campaign in New South Wales was conducted over three years and involved three stages. The first stage lasted seven weeks and began in October The second stage lasted eight weeks and began in May The third stage, which replayed the radio and television advertisements of the first two campaigns, began in June The campaign was deemed to have been successful 'to the extent that it achieved improved knowledge about child sexual assault. One of the main messages the campaign set out to communicate to the community was that children are at a greater risk of sexual abuse by relatives and family friends than by strangers, and child sexual offenders ought to take responsibility for their actions Calvert The campaign aimed to promote community awareness of why perpetrators of child sexual assault commit this crime, how attitudes in society influence their behaviour; and how these attitudes arise in the first place Calvert Calvert also stressed that: 'Mass media campaigns will only have an impact on attitudes and behaviour if they are run over a long period of time.

Unless these things are achieved, the prevention campaigns will be like pouring water on sand: gone as soon as it is poured. Consideration was given to viewing times and programs, favoured by males, such as sports programs. The important messages that these campaigns set out to convey are unlikely to be retained by communities that characteristically change in nature and composition, unless they are conveyed to people continually rather than in short bursts over a relatively short period of time. In New Zealand, Roberts has written about a recent confronting Rape Crisis awareness campaign focusing on incest.

The campaign was called It's okay to talk about incest. Its aim was to break the silence, 'to drive home the message that incest exists and everyone needs to talk about and challenge it' Roberts The campaign's media advertisements carried the personal messages of five incest survivors. One survivor of sexual abuse by her father revealed in an advertisement:. Nobody held a knife to his throat to make him lie on top of me. There was no-one blackmailing him to pinch what weren't even nipples yet'. Julia, in Roberts Graphic detail in the survivors true stories was followed by evidence of the emotional suffering of victims of incest:. I feel that time's running out for me to have a really close, fulfilling relationship with someone I can trust.

The success of this media campaign in terms of public exposure to the problem of incest and government recognition of the effects of incest was considerable. Unfortunately, the campaign ran only for one week. In the United Kingdom, a recent Barnardo's advertisement attracted censorship because of its confronting nature. The Committee of Advertising Practice discouraged newspapers from publishing a digitally altered advertisement depicting:.

The text reads: ' John Donaldson. Age Battered as a child, it was always possible that John would turn to drugs. With Barnardo's help, child abuse need not lead to an empty future. The advertisement was the fifth in a confronting Barnardo's campaign intending to demonstrate what can happen to abused or disadvantaged children who do not receive the help they need when they are young. In retaliation against the censorship, Barnardo's director of marketing and communication argued: 'They're not making due allowance for a charity talking about its work. If this was a supermarket trying to use shock tactics just to sell products from its shelves one might agree with the committee.

It appears that the reality of child abuse and its impact may be too confronting for some members of the community to absorb and to address. Other mass media campaigns in England have run without censure. It was prompted by the fact that: 'At least one baby is killed every fortnight in domestic violence in England and Wales' Harrison , and recent British research that revealed that, in a period of 12 months, 92 babies suffered serious brain injuries caused by shaking Harrison The campaign's message, aimed at parents overly stressed by crying infants, was: 'Before you cross that line, stop.

Captions underneath read: 'By bedtime she wanted to shake him like a rag doll', and 'That night he felt like slamming her against the cot'. For three weeks advertisements were shown on prime time television, supported by billboards and the distribution of one million leaflets. A notable example of how a mass media campaign can target a particular group of people was run in the United States in Brown reported on a campaign, 'Children: An investment that's guaranteed to grow', that targeted businessmen:. It will show a stack of books on business. And it won't move you to tears.

Instead it will suggest you see children much as you might view a stock portfolio - an investment, as one of the ads says, "that's guaranteed to grow". The advertisements for this campaign were displayed on television during baseball games, in Money Magazine, Fortune and Newsweek, and on public transport. This 'investment' campaign followed a previous campaign that encouraged parents to turn to family, friends or a help line for support before they hurt their child Brown :. This campaign was found to be successful in getting the message across to many women.

Surveys revealed, however, that richer and well-educated men believed that 'what happened in their families was nobody's business but their own' Brown The follow-up campaign was thus designed to reach businessmen. Focusing on violence against women and children, the campaign included radio and television commercials, information leaflets outlining both facts about violence and tips on how to deal with it. Tips addressed 'managing anger, helping abused persons, devising safety plans, coping with family violence, and getting help' Godenzi and De Puy The campaign also raised and addressed the issue of media violence.

It further specifically targeted potential or current abusers by asking questions such as: 'Do you always have to be the one in charge? Do you blame your partner for everything that goes wrong? The Freedom from Fear campaign in Western Australia targeted male perpetrators of domestic violence. As noted in the introduction to this paper, five media strategies used in mass media prevention campaigns were identified prior to the campaign's implementation. They are 'criminal sanctions'; 'community intervention'; 'social disapproval'; 'consequences'; and 'help available' Donovan et al. Through formative research which involved interviewing domestic violence workers, the organisers of this campaign found strategies four and five to be the most effective for their campaign.

Perpetrators were concerned about the impact of their violence on their children, and they were interested to know how to seek help. ParentLink, a collective of Missouri agencies in the United States, similarly uses these strategies in their media campaign When You're Under the Influence, They're Under Yours: 'When he gets to work, he sees a poster with this same caption. He begins to wonder about his drinking and its impact on his children. For more information, he calls ParentLinks's Warmline. He obtains materials to read and information about substance abuse counselling programs in his community. King et al. While similar campaigns have been successful in educating the English-speaking community about prevention and treatment of scald injuries to children, clearly there is also a need in a multi-cultural society such as Australia to ensure that everyone gets exposure to campaign messages that are culturally and linguistically appropriate.

Evaluation of the campaign, through before and after telephone surveys, revealed that the campaign was successful. The knowledge of all three groups had increased, though there were differences in absorption of the campaign material by the three targeted groups. Greater exposure to campaign material appears to have resulted in greater campaign effectiveness in the Vietnamese community. It illustrates the success of this approach, as well as the significant variability between groups. Child abuse is now increasingly the subject of television dramas, documentaries, films, and live theatre productions. Some of them, characteristically controversial, have attracted comment in the literature and have been reviewed in the print media Campbell ; Donovan ; Scott ; Hellen ; Musiel ; Pristel ; Edwards Discussion about the impact of these types of media on the public's perception of child abuse and on efforts to combat the abuse of children presents both positive and negative comment.

The following discussion presents some examples and commentary. Sanders et al. The series presented a parenting model, suggesting strategies parents could use with their children. It aimed to reassure parents that it is normal for parenting to be challenging, and it hoped to increase parents' confidence that positive changes in children's behaviour were achievable. The series also aimed to increase awareness in the community of the importance of 'positive family relationships' to the positive development of young people Sanders et al.

This 'media-based television series' was considered to be successful, specifically in relation to its impact on increasing the parenting confidence of mothers. However, Sanders et al. These services could provide information and back-up resources, such as parenting tip sheets, to parents seeking further advice after viewing the program. Staff at these centres could also identify and refer families who may need more intensive help. Donovan insists that 'edutainment' incorporating educational messages in television soap-operas and drama requires very close liaison between writers, producers and experts in the field, such as child sexual abuse counsellors. Moreover, according to Donovan 30 : 'Documentaries and feature articles should not relate solely to child abuse but should deal also with family and child welfare issues.

They should include positive modelling behaviours as well as highlighting unacceptable practices and the consequences of these unacceptable practices. Designed to provide factual follow-up information on medical and social issues dramatised on ER, the popular television program, Following ER forms part of the evening news. Cooper et al. Following ER borrows some of the intensity and action of ER to build a context for prevention news stories. Links of this nature may make some prevention information more appealing thus maintaining audience attention to, and retention of, messages Cooper et al. It has been suggested that sometimes 'drama reaches the parts the documentary cannot' Campbell Writing about Testimony of a Child, a BBC screenplay that presents 'the other side of the Cleveland child sexual abuse saga - the story of an abused child going home to [the] abuser', Campbell argues that sexual assault 'presents television with terrible problems.

Television is about seeing. But it censors what we need to see if we are to understand because it bows to propriety and thus contains what is knowable. Despite this, Campbell 45 notes the power of fictitious drama based on fact to: ' invite you to think: what would you do if faced with that child's face, his fantasies full of terror and death, his starvation, his stubborn silences, his sore bum. And what would you do if those riddles were amplified by his little sister showing you a sexual relationship with a daddy dolly? Following the program, helplines were overloaded with calls from people who had experienced sexual or ritual abuse. Counsellors noted that: 'The program appeared to have given callers permission to speak of their experiences and their gratitude that someone, somewhere took what they said seriously.

Henderson, a fellow at Glasgow University's mass media unit, as quoted by Hellen commented that: 'A lot of people who have suffered child abuse quite simply lack the vocabulary, because of shame or fear, to come to terms with what has happened. Provided a drama does not place blame on the child, it can be very helpful. Some writers promote film as being helpful in education about child abuse. In her review of 17 films for child sexual abuse prevention and treatment, Byers argues that: 'Filmmakers have provided a vehicle that in some ways surpasses any other in the ongoing endeavour to educate children and adults in the prevention of child abuse. Film presents the opportunity for various issues, such as children's stories not being believed, perpetrators not being punished, and painful experiences of child sexual abuse being remembered, to be brought to life.

The impact of these issues on the people involved may be powerfully explored. However, some writers express concern that with the increasing numbers of dramas and books concentrating on child sexual abuse and paedophilia there are 'dangers either that we become comfortable about the crime and start to regard it as acceptable, which it must never be, or that we become hysterical' Rantzen, founder of ChildLine in the UK, as quoted in Hellen In , two plays opened in New South Wales within a month of each other.

Reporting on a controversial play entitled Cold Hands, Armstrong 11 argued that the play: ' The play's focus allows the audience to gain an insight into the child's fear and trauma, the father's feeble rationalisation and defence, and the mother's fear of confronting the truth. Armstrong noted that the New South Wales Child Protection Council showed professional interest in the play and that plays have been used as part of child abuse awareness campaigns.

The play's director, Ritchie as quoted by Armstrong 11 remarked that: 'The play is powerful, dramatic, presenting practical and emotional reality. It is confronting, but it emphasises the fact that there is no excuse. Between the ages of four and a half and five and a half, Helen had been sexually abused by her parents' gardener. Helen hoped that the play would: 'open the issue up for debate. I want [the audience] to have listened, to have borne witness. Hoefnagels and Baartmann have documented a mass media prevention campaign in Western Europe. This campaign, which was directed at children, aimed to increase disclosures of abuse. It began with the screening of a television program entitled Some secrets you have to talk about and this became the campaign's slogan.

The initial television program was followed by 20 other programs and documentaries on the subject of child sexual abuse. The campaign also included television commercials, newspaper and magazine articles, stickers, billboards, leaflets and booklets. The campaign ran for nine months. Phone calls to ChildLine services promoted as part of the campaign almost tripled as a result of the campaign. Mass media clearly influenced the process of disclosure Hoefnagels and Baartmann However, as is the case in many social and political climates where child sexual abuse is prevalent and short term media campaigns are run, Hoefnagels and Baartmann noted that the resources needed to meet the needs of abused children continue to be deficient. Media campaigns that raise awareness of child abuse and neglect may only be effective if supported by at least a corresponding increase in human and material resources to address the problem.

A recent documentary, screened in New Zealand in , graphically depicts the lives and abuse of three children played by actors. During the documentary, a Detective Inspector informs the audience that the drama is based on the lives of real people, and the audience is told how life turned out for the children and their abusers. In each case, one adult or more had failed to take responsibility for the safety of a defenceless child' Herrick Twenty years ago, polite society didn't even acknowledge abuse existed, let alone talk about it. So shows like this, which provoke thought and discussion, must be a sign of progress, even if the statistics say otherwise. Killing tomorrow was punishing if compelling viewing.

Supported by New Zealand's child protection authority, Child Youth and Family Services CYFS , consider documentaries like 'Killing Tomorrow' to be a powerful way of educating people about the issues and what can be done to protect children. After the program was screened there was a panel discussion of the issues presented in the documentary and CYFS booklets that provide tips on parenting were made available to the public. Child protection received phone calls during the documentary and on the night it was screened.

Child abuse is a community problem and as such it ought to be everybody's business. However, as noted above, as part of the ongoing campaign by Australians Against Child Abuse, Every child is important, Quantum Market Research found that: 'Child abuse, as a serious social problem, is poorly understood by the public on a number of levels including its true extent and nature. These results, a good example of what Freimuth, Cole and Kirby describe as 'formative research or evaluation', confirmed 'the need for a major community awareness campaign to better inform the public about the problem of child abuse' Tucci, Goddard and Mitchell Research, such as that carried out by Quantum for Australians Against Child Abuse is integral to a successful campaign.

Social marketing principles, which incorporate such research, are increasingly recognised for their relevance to campaign planning and evaluation. The social marketing model has much to contribute to planned mass communication campaigns Windahl, Signitzer and Olsen Successful commercial marketing involves an 'exchange process' that results in the satisfaction of the needs of two or more groups of people Kotler Communication thus plays a significant role: an offer is communicated to the client based on essential information received by the seller about the client's 'needs, wants and resources' Windahl et al.

Social marketing uses commercial marketing techniques 'to advance a social cause, idea or behavior' Kotler , quoted in Windahl et al. Indeed, commercial marketing practices may be applied 'to the analysis, planning, execution and evaluation of programs designed to influence the voluntary behaviour of target audiences in order to improve their personal welfare and that of their society' , quoted in Hall and Stannard 8. New Zealand's Breaking the Cycle child abuse education and prevention campaign, begun in , was the first to successfully apply 'social marketing as a social work intervention to change abusive parenting behaviours.

These writers summarise the seven key elements of Andreason's social marketing model which was used in the Breaking the Cycle campaign as follows:. Windahl et al. As noted above, the 'classic' marketing approach is to focus on the four Ps - product, price, place, promotion. In a child abuse prevention campaign, the generic product would be child safety and wellbeing; the specific product might be reporting suspicions to child protection services, seeking help from various sources, or valuing and appreciating children. For example, various personal costs, such as lost time, income and clients, may deter mandated professionals from making a report of suspected child abuse to child protection authorities.

However, the benefits to the child and to the community may counterbalance personal costs, as may the avoidance of a penalty for failing to report suspected abuse see Goddard, Saunders, Stanley and Tucci Promotion must be adapted to its target public. A campaign designed to enhance people's attitudes and behaviour towards children and young people, and to increase the availability of supports to children and families, might effectively stress the economic saving and social prosperity to the community resulting from a decrease in child abuse and neglect.

Legal sanctions may need to be imposed to ensure a community approach. Campaigns to introduce mandatory reporting of child abuse are one example in the field of child protection. In addition to the 'rational interplay' of these five 'P' strategies, Windahl et al. Generally, they suggest, the goal is 'social change', and they cite Kotler's typology of social change, with examples example in italics related to child protection: Saunders and Goddard :. Importantly, 'campaign objectives and criteria for success should be reasonable' Rice and Atkin , cited in Windahl et al. Despite inherent difficulties, including resource constraints, 'public communication campaigns.

In answer to the question: 'Can communication campaigns succeed? Donovan completed a plan for a national, integrated, comprehensive media campaign aimed at the prevention of child abuse. The recommendations Donovan 15 stated that:. A wide range of media approaches should be used, including advertising, community service announcements, publicity for example, feature articles and documentaries , and 'edutainment' that is, the deliberate inclusion of educational messages in entertainment vehicles such as TV soap operas.

Using media campaigns focusing on the sexual assault of children as an example, Donovan draws on Finkelhor to note that child sexual assault is a behaviour that is both pre-meditated and planned, rather than impulsive. Media campaigns are therefore presented with a 'window of opportunity' Donovan This 'window of opportunity' is the time that lapses between a sexual abuser's thoughts and calculations in relation to the act of assault and the actual abusive episode.

Media messages targeted at potential abusers during this lead time may, it is suggested, prevent initial or repeat abuse: 'We need to target perpetrators when they are in the initial stage of planning a sexual assault, and we need to focus on the rationalisations they use to remove the usual inhibitors to child sexual abuse' Donovan McGuire 69 argues that: 'Any undertaking as important and expensive as a public communication campaign should have evaluation procedures built into it. In order to evaluate the degree to which a mass communication campaign achieves its goals, it will be necessary to first identify the dependent and independent variables impinging on the outcome.

Freimuth et al. They identify four broad areas under which to organise the campaign's independent variables, the combination of which constitutes the 'campaign strategy'. These are: the psychosocial attributes of the receiver; the source or spokesperson; the settings, channels, activities and materials used to disseminate the messages; and the message itself, including content, tone, type of appeal, audio characteristics and visual attributes. Additionally, Freimuth et al. The evaluation of a mass communication strategy, according to Freimuth et al. Drawing largely on Freimuth et al. Also see Wellings and Macdowell for a clear outline of the evaluation process. As noted above, this is the first stage in the process of planning and evaluating a mass communication strategy.

This stage involves research aimed at accurately profiling 'target audiences', and the piloting of 'strategies' and 'tactics' prior to their planned implementation Freimuth et al.

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