✎✎✎ How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture

Tuesday, September 07, 2021 5:54:07 PM

How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture



It was too dangerous. The remainder of us were taken to another spot 50 miles [80 km] away where 10 prisoners died of sickness. Dulles, Virginia: Brassey's Inc. Most historians and scholars agreed that the oil embargo cannot be used as justification for using How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture force against a foreign nation imposing the oil embargo because How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture is a clear distinction between a what is red herring How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture something is essential to the welfare of the nation-state and a threat truly being sufficiently serious to How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture an How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture of force in response, How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture Japan had failed to consider. By James Clark Oct Ethnocentrism: The Importance Of Diversity In The Workplace, News. How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture scope of the How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture assault would have been unimaginable before yesterday.

Identities of Japanese Americans in Japan

One case of human experimentation occurred in Japan itself. At least nine of 11 members of Lt. In China, the Japanese waged ruthless biological warfare against Chinese civilians and soldiers. Japanese aviators sprayed fleas carrying plague germs over metropolitan areas, creating bubonic plague epidemics. The plan was set to launch at night on 22 September , but Japan surrendered five weeks earlier. On 11 March , 30 people, including several doctors and one female nurse, were brought to trial by the Allied war crimes tribunal. Charges of cannibalism were dropped, but 23 people were found guilty of vivisection or wrongful removal of body parts. Five were sentenced to death, four to life imprisonment, and the rest to shorter terms.

In , the military governor of Japan, General Douglas MacArthur , commuted all of the death sentences and significantly reduced most of the prison terms. All of those convicted in relation to the university vivisection were free after In , former IJN medical officer Akira Makino stated that he was ordered—as part of his training—to carry out vivisection on about 30 civilian prisoners in the Philippines between December and February The Imperial House of Japan was responsible for the human experimentation programs, as members of the imperial family, including, but not limited to, Prince Higashikuni Naruhiko , Prince Chichibu , Prince Mikasa and Prince Takeda Tsuneyoshi , participated in the programs in various ways, which included authorizing, funding, supplying, and inspecting biomedical facilities.

According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Kentaro Awaya, during the Second Sino-Japanese War , gas weapons , such as tear gas , were used only sporadically in , but in early the Imperial Japanese Army began full-scale use of phosgene , chlorine , Lewisite and nausea gas red , and from mid, mustard gas yellow was used against both Kuomintang and Communist Chinese troops. According to Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, Emperor Hirohito signed orders specifying the use of chemical weapons in China. Another example is the Battle of Yichang in October , during which the 19th Artillery Regiment helped the 13th Brigade of the IJA 11th Army by launching 1, yellow gas shells and 1, red gas shells at the Chinese forces.

The area was crowded with Chinese civilians unable to evacuate. Some 3, Chinese soldiers were in the area and 1, were affected. The Japanese report stated that "the effect of gas seems considerable". Japanese imperial forces employed widespread use of torture on prisoners, usually in an effort to gather military intelligence quickly. The major means of getting intelligence was to extract information by interrogating prisoners.

Torture was an unavoidable necessity. Murdering and burying them follows naturally. You do it so you won't be found out. I believed and acted this way because I was convinced of what I was doing. We carried out our duty as instructed by our masters. We did it for the sake of our country. From our filial obligation to our ancestors. On the battlefield, we never really considered the Chinese humans. When you're winning, the losers look really miserable. We concluded that the Yamato Japanese race was superior. The effectiveness of torture might also have been counterproductive to Japan's war effort.

After the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II, the Japanese military tortured a captured American P fighter pilot named Marcus McDilda to discover how many atomic bombs the Allies had and what the future targets were. McDilda, who knew nothing about the atomic bomb nor the Manhattan Project , "confessed" under torture that the U. As you know, when atoms are split, there are a lot of pluses and minuses released. Well, we've taken these and put them in a huge container and separated them from each other with a lead shield. When the box is dropped out of a plane, we melt the lead shield and the pluses and minuses come together. When that happens, it causes a tremendous bolt of lightning and all the atmosphere over a city is pushed back!

Then when the atmosphere rolls back, it brings about a tremendous thunderclap, which knocks down everything beneath it. McDilda's false confession may have swayed the Japanese leaders' decision to surrender. According to many historians, one of the favorite techniques of Japanese torturers was " simulated drowning ", in which water was poured over the immobilized victim's head, until they suffocated and lost consciousness. They were then resuscitated brutally usually with the torturer jumping on their abdomen to expel the water and then subjected to a new session of torture. The entire process could be repeated for about twenty minutes.

Many Allied airmen captured by the Japanese on land or at sea were executed in accordance with official Japanese policy. During the Battle of Midway in June , three American airmen who were shot down and landed at sea were spotted and captured by Japanese warships. After brief interrogations, two airmen were killed, their bodies then tied to five-gallon kerosene cans filled with water and dumped overboard from destroyer Makigumo ; the third was killed and his body dumped overboard from Arashi.

On 13 August , Japan passed the Enemy Airmen's Act , which stated that Allied pilots who bombed non-military targets in the Pacific Theater and were captured on land or at sea by Japanese forces were subject to trial and punishment despite the absence of any international law containing provisions regarding aerial warfare. According to the Hague Convention of the only convention which Japan had ratified regarding the treatment of prisoners of war , any military personnel captured on land or at sea by enemy troops were to be treated as prisoners of war and not punished for simply being lawful combatants. Eight Doolittle Raiders captured upon landing in China four months before the passage of the Act were the first Allied aircrew to be brought before a kangaroo court in Shanghai under the act, charged with alleged but unproven strafing of Japanese civilians during the Doolittle Raid.

The eight aircrew were forbidden to give any defense and, despite the lack of legitimate evidences, were found guilty of participating in aerial military operations against Japan. Five of the eight sentences were commuted to life imprisonment; the other three airmen were taken to a cemetery outside Shanghai, where they were executed by firing squad on 14 October An estimated Allied airmen shot down during the bombing campaign against Japan in — were summarily executed after short kangaroo trials or drumhead courts-martial.

Imperial Japanese military personnel deliberately killed 33 American airmen at Fukuoka, including fifteen who were beheaded shortly after the Japanese Government's intention to surrender was announced on 15 August Many written reports and testimonies which were collected by the Australian War Crimes Section of the Tokyo tribunal, and investigated by prosecutor William Webb the tribunal's future Judge-in-Chief , indicate that Japanese personnel committed acts of cannibalism against Allied prisoners of war in many parts of Asia and the Pacific.

In many cases these acts of cannibalism were inspired by ever-increasing Allied attacks on Japanese supply lines, and the death and illness of Japanese personnel which resulted from hunger. According to historian Yuki Tanaka: "cannibalism was often a systematic activity which was conducted by whole squads which were under the command of officers. I saw this from behind a tree and watched some of the Japanese cut flesh from his arms, legs, hips, buttocks and carry it off to their quarters They cut it [into] small pieces and fried it. I personally saw this happen and about prisoners were eaten at this place by the Japanese. The remainder of us were taken to another spot 50 miles [80 km] away where 10 prisoners died of sickness.

At this place, the Japanese again started selecting prisoners to eat. Those selected were taken to a hut where their flesh was cut from their bodies while they were alive and they were thrown into a ditch where they later died. At the village of Suaid, a Japanese medical officer periodically visited the Indian compound and selected each time the healthiest men. These men were taken away ostensibly for carrying out duties, but they never reappeared. Perhaps the most senior officer convicted of cannibalism was Lt Gen. Navy airmen, and the cannibalism of at least one of them, during August , on Chichi Jima , in the Bonin Islands. The airmen were beheaded on Tachibana's orders. Because military and international law did not specifically deal with cannibalism, they were tried for murder and "prevention of honorable burial".

Tachibana was sentenced to death, and hanged. Deaths caused by the diversion of resources to Japanese troops in occupied countries are also considered war crimes by many people. Library of Congress estimates that in Java the Japanese military forced between four and ten million romusha Japanese: "manual laborers" to work. According to historian Akira Fujiwara, Emperor Hirohito personally ratified the decision to remove the constraints of international law The Hague Conventions on the treatment of Chinese prisoners of war in the directive of 5 August This notification also advised staff officers to stop using the term "prisoners of war".

Japan was not a signatory to the Geneva Convention on the Prisoners of War at the time, and Japanese forces did not follow the convention, although they ratified the Geneva Convention on the Sick And Wounded. In , historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi published material based on his research in archives at Japan's National Institute for Defense Studies. When Yoshimi's findings were published in the Japanese news media on 12 January , they caused a sensation and forced the government, represented by Chief Cabinet Secretary Kato Koichi , to acknowledge some of the facts that same day.

On 17 January, Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa presented formal apologies for the suffering of the victims, during a trip in South Korea. On 6 July and 4 August, the Japanese government issued two statements by which it recognised that "Comfort stations were operated in response to the request of the military of the day", "The Japanese military was, directly or indirectly, involved in the establishment and management of the comfort stations and the transfer of comfort women" and that the women were "recruited in many cases against their own will through coaxing and coercion". House of Representatives committee would call on the Japanese Government to "apologize for and acknowledge" the role of the Japanese Imperial military in wartime sex slavery.

Abe denied that it applied to comfort stations. For example, a New York Times editorial on 6 March said: []. These were not commercial brothels. Force, explicit and implicit, was used in recruiting these women. What went on in them was serial rape, not prostitution. The Japanese Army's involvement is documented in the government's own defense files. A senior Tokyo official more or less apologized for this horrific crime in Yesterday, he grudgingly acknowledged the quasi apology, but only as part of a pre-emptive declaration that his government would reject the call, now pending in the United States Congress, for an official apology. America isn't the only country interested in seeing Japan belatedly accept full responsibility. Korea, China, and the Philippines are also infuriated by years of Japanese equivocations over the issue.

The same day, veteran soldier Yasuji Kaneko admitted to The Washington Post that the women "cried out, but it didn't matter to us whether the women lived or died. We were the emperor's soldiers. Whether in military brothels or in the villages, we raped without reluctance. The Bahay na Pula in the Philippines, was an example of a military-operated garrison where local women were raped. On 17 April , Yoshimi and another historian, Hirofumi Hayashi, announced the discovery, in the archives of the Tokyo Trials, of seven official documents suggesting that Imperial military forces, such as the Tokkeitai naval secret police , directly coerced women to work in frontline brothels in China, Indochina and Indonesia.

These documents were initially made public at the war crimes trial. In one of these, a lieutenant is quoted as confessing having organized a brothel and having used it himself. Another source refers to Tokkeitai members having arrested women on the streets, and after enforced medical examinations, putting them in brothels. On 12 May , journalist Taichiro Kaijimura announced the discovery of 30 Netherland government documents submitted to the Tokyo tribunal as evidence of a forced massed prostitution incident in in Magelang.

In other cases, some victims from East Timor testified they were dragged from their homes and forced into prostitution at military brothels even when they were not old enough to have started menstruating and were repeatedly raped by Japanese soldiers "Night after Night". Ruff O'Herne said that she had been raped "day and night" for three months by Japanese soldiers when she was There are different theories on the breakdown of the comfort women's place of origin. While some Japanese sources claim that the majority of the women were from Japan, others, including Yoshimi, argue as many as , women, [] [] mostly from Korea, and some other countries such as China, Philippines, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Netherlands, [] and Australia [] were forced to engage in sexual activity.

On 26 June , the United States House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee passed a resolution asking that Japan "should acknowledge, apologize and accept historical responsibility in a clear and unequivocal manner for its military's coercion of women into sexual slavery during the war". Several scholars have claimed that the Japanese government along with Japanese military personnel engaged in widespread looting during the period of to In China, an eyewitness, journalist F.

Tillman of The New York Times , sent an article to his newspaper where he described the Imperial Japanese Army 's entry into Nanjing in December "the plunder carried out by the Japanese reached almost the entire city. Almost all buildings were entered by Japanese soldiers, often in the sight of their officers, and the men took whatever they wanted. Japanese soldiers often forced Chinese to carry the loot. In Korea, it is estimated that about , priceless artifacts and cultural goods were looted by Japanese colonial authorities and private collectors during the nearly fifty years of military occupation.

The Administration claims that there are 41, cultural objects which are located in Japan but remain unreported by the Japanese authorities. Unlike the works of art looted by Nazis in Europe, the return of property to its rightful owners or even the discussion of financial reparations in the post-war period, met with strong resistance from the American government , particularly General Douglas MacArthur. According to several historians, MacArthur's disagreement was not based on issues of rights, ethics or morals, but on political convenience.

He spoke on the topic in a radio message to the U. Army in May , the transcript of which was found by the magazine Time in the U. National Archives. In it MacArthur states: "I am completely at odds with the minority view of replacing lost or destroyed cultural property as a result of military action and occupation". With the advent of Cold War , the general feared "embittering the Japanese people towards us and making Japan vulnerable to ideological pressures and a fertile ground for subversive action".

Kyoichi Arimitsu, one of the last living survivors of the Japanese archeological missions which operated on the Korean peninsula, which started early in the twentieth century, agrees that the plunder in the s was out of control, but that researchers and academics , such as him, had nothing to do with it. However, he recognizes that the excavated pieces which were deemed to be most historically significant were sent to the Japanese governor-general, who then decided what would be sent to Emperor Hirohito.

In , Japan and South Korea negotiated a treaty to reestablish diplomatic relations and the issue of returning the cultural artifacts was raised. However, the then South Korean dictator, Park Chung-hee , preferred to receive cash compensation that would allow him to build highways and steelworks ; works of art and cultural goods were not a priority.

As a result, at the time the Koreans had to settle for the return of only 1, items, including rare books and ceramic pieces. The Japanese claim that this put an end to any Korean claim regarding reparation for cultural goods or of any other nature. Throughout the Pacific War, Japanese soldiers often feigned injury or surrender to lure the approaching American forces before attacking them.

One of the most famous examples of this was the "Goettge Patrol" during the early days of the Guadalcanal Campaign in August After the patrol saw a white flag displayed on the west bank of Matanikau River , Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Frank Goettge assembled 25 men, primarily consisting of intelligence personnel, to search the area. Unknown to the patrol, the white flag was actually a Japanese flag with the Hinomaru disc insignia obscured. A Japanese prisoner earlier deliberately tricked the Marines into an ambush by telling them that there were a number of Japanese soldiers west of the Matanikau River who wanted to surrender.

Soon after the patrol landed, a group of Japanese naval troops ambushed and almost completely wiped out the patrol. Goettge was among the dead. Only three Americans made it back to American lines in the Lunga Point perimeter alive. News of the killing and treachery by the Japanese outraged the American Marines:. This was the first mass killing of the Marines on Guadalcanal. We were shocked. The loss of this patrol and the particularly cruel way in which they had met death, hardened our hearts toward the Japanese. The idea of taking prisoners was swept from our minds. It was too dangerous. Second Lieutenant D. Clark of the 7th Marines told a similar story while patrolling Guadalcanal:.

I was on my first patrol here, and we were moving up a dry stream bed. We saw 3 Japs come down the river bed out of the jungle. The one in front was carrying a white flag. We thought they were surrendering. When they got up to us they dropped the white flag and then all 3 threw hand grenades. We killed 2 of these Japs, but 1 got away. Apparently they do not mind a sacrifice to get information. There were innumerable incidents such as a wounded Japanese soldier at Guadalcanal seizing a scalpel and burying it in the back of a surgeon who was about to save his life by an operation; and a survivor of the Battle of Vella Lavella , rescued by PT, pulling a gun and killing a bluejacket in the act of giving a Japanese sailor a cup of coffee.

A PT is a patrol torpedo boat and a bluejacket is an enlisted sailor. These incidents, along with many other perfidious actions of the Japanese throughout the Pacific War, led to an American tendency to shoot the dead or wounded Japanese soldiers and those who were attempting to surrender and not take them as prisoners of war easily. Two Marines of Iwo Jima told cautionary tales. One confided:. They always told you take prisoners but we had some bad experiences on Saipan taking prisoners, you take them and then as soon as they get behind the lines they drop grenades and you lose a few more people.

You get a little bit leery of taking prisoners when they are fighting to the death and so are you. Hospital ships are painted white with large red crosses to show they are not combat ships, but ships with wounded and medical staff. Japan had signed the Hague Convention X of that stated attacking a hospital ship is a war crime. Soon after the war, the Allied powers indicted 25 persons as Class-A war criminals , and 5, persons were indicted as Class-B or Class-C war criminals by Allied criminal trials.

Of these, were initially condemned to death, were actually executed, received life sentences, 2, received some prison terms, 1, were acquitted, and were not sentenced or not brought to trial. These numbers included ethnic Taiwanese and ethnic Koreans. Other courts were formed in many different places in Asia and the Pacific. Many military leaders were also convicted. Two people convicted as Class-A war criminals later served as ministers in post-war Japanese governments. Hirohito and all members of the imperial family implicated in the war such as Prince Chichibu , Prince Asaka , Prince Takeda and Prince Higashikuni were exonerated from criminal prosecutions by MacArthur, with the help of Bonner Fellers who allowed the major criminal suspects to coordinate their stories so that the Emperor would be spared from indictment.

According to John Dower, "with the full support of MacArthur 's headquarters, the prosecution functioned, in effect, as a defense team for the emperor" [] and even Japanese activists who endorse the ideals of the Nuremberg and Tokyo charters, and who have labored to document and publicize the atrocities of the Showa regime "cannot defend the American decision to exonerate the emperor of war responsibility and then, in the chill of the Cold War , release and soon afterwards openly embrace accused right-winged war criminals like the later prime minister Nobusuke Kishi. In a cable sent to General Dwight Eisenhower in February , MacArthur said executing or imprisoning the emperor would require the use of one million occupation soldiers to keep the peace.

Some 5, Japanese personnel were prosecuted in more than 2, trials outside Japan. Class B defendants were accused of having committed such crimes themselves; class C defendants, mostly senior officers, were accused of planning, ordering or failing to prevent them. Additionally, the Chinese Communists also held a number of trials for Japanese personnel.

More than 4, Japanese personnel were convicted and about 1, were sentenced to death. The largest single trial was that of 93 Japanese personnel charged with the summary execution of more than Allied POWs, in the Laha massacre The most prominent ethnic Korean convicted was Lieutenant General Hong Sa Ik , who orchestrated the organisation of prisoner of war camps in Southeast Asia. In , the South Korean government "pardoned" 83 of the convicted Korean war criminals. In , after most Allied war crimes trials had ended, thousands of convicted war criminals sat in prisons across Asia and across Europe, detained in the countries where they were convicted. Some executions were still outstanding as many Allied courts agreed to reexamine their verdicts, reducing sentences in some cases and instituting a system of parole, but without relinquishing control over the fate of the imprisoned even after Japan and Germany had regained their status as sovereign countries.

On 7 March , MacArthur issued a directive that reduced the sentences by one-third for good behavior and authorized the parole of those who had received life sentences after fifteen years. Several of those who were imprisoned were released earlier on parole due to ill-health. The Japanese popular reaction to the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal found expression in demands for the mitigation of the sentences of war criminals and agitation for parole. Shortly after the San Francisco Peace Treaty came into effect in April , a movement demanding the release of B- and C-class war criminals began, emphasizing the "unfairness of the war crimes tribunals" and the "misery and hardship of the families of war criminals".

The movement quickly garnered the support of more than ten million Japanese. In the face of this surge of public opinion, the government commented that "public sentiment in our country is that the war criminals are not criminals. Rather, they gather great sympathy as victims of the war, and the number of people concerned about the war crimes tribunal system itself is steadily increasing. The parole-for-war-criminals movement was driven by two groups: those from outside who had "a sense of pity" for the prisoners; and the war criminals themselves who called for their own release as part of an anti-war peace movement.

The movement that arose out of "a sense of pity" demanded "just set them free tonikaku shakuho o regardless of how it is done". On 4 September , President Truman issued Executive Order , establishing a Clemency and Parole Board for War Criminals to advise the President with respect to recommendations by the Government of Japan for clemency, reduction of sentence, or parole, with respect to sentences imposed on Japanese war criminals by military tribunals.

On 26 May , Secretary of State John Foster Dulles rejected a proposed amnesty for the imprisoned war criminals but instead agreed to "change the ground rules" by reducing the period required for eligibility for parole from 15 years to By the end of , all Japanese war criminals, including A-, B- and C-class were released from prison and politically rehabilitated. On 7 April , the Japanese government announced that, with the concurrence of a majority of the powers represented on the tribunal, the last ten major Japanese war criminals who had previously been paroled were granted clemency and were to be regarded henceforth as unconditionally free from the terms of their parole.

The Japanese government considers that the legal and moral positions in regard to war crimes are separate. Therefore, while maintaining that Japan violated no international law or treaties, Japanese governments have officially recognised the suffering which the Japanese military caused, and numerous apologies have been issued by the Japanese government. For example, Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama , in August , stated that Japan "through its colonial rule and aggression, caused tremendous damage and suffering to the people of many countries, particularly to those of Asian nations", and he expressed his "feelings of deep remorse" and stated his "heartfelt apology".

Also, on 29 September , Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka stated: "[t]he Japanese side is keenly conscious of the responsibility for the serious damage that Japan caused in the past to the Chinese people through war, and deeply reproaches itself. The official apologies are widely viewed as inadequate or only a symbolic exchange by many of the survivors of such crimes or the families of dead victims. In October , while Prime Minister Shinzo Abe expressed an apology for the damage caused by its colonial rule and aggression, more than 80 Japanese lawmakers from his ruling party LDP paid visits to the Yasukuni Shrine. Many people aggrieved by Japanese war crimes also maintain that no apology has been issued for particular acts or that the Japanese government has merely expressed "regret" or "remorse".

He stated, "The fact is, there is no evidence to prove there was coercion. On 31 October , the chief of staff of Japan's Air Self-Defense Force Toshio Tamogami was dismissed with a 60 million yen allowance [] due to an essay he published, arguing that Japan was not an aggressor during World War II , that the war brought prosperity to China, Taiwan and Korea, that the Imperial Japanese Army 's conduct was not violent and that the Greater East Asia War is viewed in a positive way by many Asian countries and criticizing the war crimes trials which followed the war. Some in Japan have asserted that what is being demanded is that the Japanese Prime Minister or the Emperor perform dogeza , in which an individual kneels and bows his head to the ground—a high form of apology in East Asian societies that Japan appears unwilling to do.

Okada said: "You have all been through hardships during World War II, being taken prisoner by the Japanese military, and suffered extremely inhumane treatment. On behalf of the Japanese government and as the foreign minister, I would like to offer you my heartfelt apology. The Japanese government, while admitting no legal responsibility for the so-called "comfort women", set up the Asian Women's Fund in , which gives money to people who claim to have been forced into prostitution during the war.

Though the organisation was established by the government, legally, it has been created such that it is an independent charity. The activities of the fund have been controversial in Japan, as well as with international organisations supporting the women concerned. California Congressman Mike Honda , speaking before U. House of Representatives on behalf of the women, said that "without a sincere and unequivocal apology from the government of Japan, the majority of surviving Comfort Women refused to accept these funds.

In fact, as you will hear today, many Comfort Women returned the Prime Minister's letter of apology accompanying the monetary compensation, saying they felt the apology was artificial and disingenuous. The term "intermediate compensation" or intermediary compensation was applied to the removal and reallocation of Japanese industrial particularly military-industrial assets to Allied countries.

It was conducted under the supervision of Allied occupation forces. This reallocation was referred to as "intermediate" because it did not amount to a final settlement by means of bilateral treaties, which settled all existing issues of compensation. The proportions in which the assets were distributed were: China, Japanese overseas assets refers to all assets which were owned by the Japanese government, firms, organizations and private citizens, in colonized or occupied countries.

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In How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture American ships have How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu. Get the latest in military news, Perceptual Deterrence Theory and gear in your inbox daily. Retrieved: June 29, World War II. The entry can be found here. This memorial is nowhere near as solemn as Normandy, but cuckold definition hamlet definitely commanded our respect. The song's chorus recounts, " Pearl Harbor sucked, and I miss you" equating the singer's longing How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture his girlfriend to how How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture "Michael Bay missed the mark when How Did Pearl Harbor Change Japanese American Culture made Pearl Harbor " which is "an awful lot, girl".

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