Reach Your Academic Goals.

Join Today to Score Better

Connect to the brainpower of an academic dream team. Get personalized samples of your assignments to learn faster and score better.

Connect to a Paper Expert

How can our experts help?

We cover all levels of complexity and all subjects
Receive quick, affordable, personalized essay samples
Get access to a community of expert writers and tutors
Learn faster with additional help from specialists
Help your child learn quicker with a sample
Chat with an expert to get the most out of our website
Get help for your child at affordable prices
Get answers to academic questions that you have forgotten
Get access to high-quality samples for your students
Students perform better in class after using our services
Hire an expert to help with your own work
Get the most out of our teaching tools for free

The Samples - a new way to teach and learn

Check out the paper samples our experts have completed. Hire one now to get your own personalized sample in less than 8 hours!

Competing in the Global and Domestic Marketplace:
Mary Kay, Inc.

Case study
Read Sample

Reservation Wage in Labor Economics

Read Sample

Pizza Hut and IMC: Becoming a Multichannel Marketer

Case study
High School
Read Sample

Washburn Guitar Company: Break-Even Analysis

Case study
Read Sample

Crime & Immigration

Read Sample

Interdisciplinary Team Cohesion in Healthcare Management

Case study
Read Sample

Customer care that warms your heart

Our support managers are here to serve!
Check out the paper samples our writers have completed. Hire one now to get your own personalized sample in less than 8 hours!
Hey, do you have any experts on American History?
Hey, he has written over 520 History Papers! I recommend that you choose Tutor Andrew
Oh wow, how do I speak with him?!
Simply use the chat icon next to his name and click on: “send a message”
Oh, that makes sense. Thanks a lot!!
Guaranteed to reply in just minutes!
Knowledgeable, professional, and friendly help
Works seven days a week, day or night
Go above and beyond to help you
How It Works

How Does Our Service Work?

Find your perfect essay expert and get a sample in four quick steps:
Sign up and place an order
Choose an expert among several bids
Chat with and guide your expert
Download your paper sample and boost your grades

Register a Personal Account

Register an account on the Studyfy platform using your email address. Create your personal account and proceed with the order form.


Submit Your Requirements & Calculate the Price

Just fill in the blanks and go step-by-step! Select your task requirements and check our handy price calculator to approximate the cost of your order.

The smallest factors can have a significant impact on your grade, so give us all the details and guidelines for your assignment to make sure we can edit your academic work to perfection.

Hire Your Essay Editor

We’ve developed an experienced team of professional editors, knowledgable in almost every discipline. Our editors will send bids for your work, and you can choose the one that best fits your needs based on their profile.

Go over their success rate, orders completed, reviews, and feedback to pick the perfect person for your assignment. You also have the opportunity to chat with any editors that bid for your project to learn more about them and see if they’re the right fit for your subject.


Receive & Check your Paper

Track the status of your essay from your personal account. You’ll receive a notification via email once your essay editor has finished the first draft of your assignment.

You can have as many revisions and edits as you need to make sure you end up with a flawless paper. Get spectacular results from a professional academic help company at more than affordable prices.

Release Funds For the Order

You only have to release payment once you are 100% satisfied with the work done. Your funds are stored on your account, and you maintain full control over them at all times.

Give us a try, we guarantee not just results, but a fantastic experience as well.


Enjoy a suite of free extras!

Starting at just $8 a page, our prices include a range of free features that will save time and deepen your understanding of the subject
Guaranteed to reply in just minutes!
Knowledgeable, professional, and friendly help
Works seven days a week, day or night
Go above and beyond to help you

Latest Customer Feedback


My deadline was so short

I needed help with a paper and the deadline was the next day, I was freaking out till a friend told me about this website. I signed up and received a paper within 8 hours!

Customer 102815


Best references list

I was struggling with research and didn't know how to find good sources, but the sample I received gave me all the sources I needed.

Customer 192816


A real helper for moms

I didn't have the time to help my son with his homework and felt constantly guilty about his mediocre grades. Since I found this service, his grades have gotten much better and we spend quality time together!

Customer 192815


Friendly support

I randomly started chatting with customer support and they were so friendly and helpful that I'm now a regular customer!

Customer 192833


Direct communication

Chatting with the writers is the best!

Customer 251421


My grades go up

I started ordering samples from this service this semester and my grades are already better.

Customer 102951


Time savers

The free features are a real time saver.

Customer 271625


They bring the subject alive

I've always hated history, but the samples here bring the subject alive!

Customer 201928



I wouldn't have graduated without you! Thanks!

Customer 726152

Frequently Asked Questions

For students

If I order a paper sample does that mean I'm cheating?

Not at all! There is nothing wrong with learning from samples. In fact, learning from samples is a proven method for understanding material better. By ordering a sample from us, you get a personalized paper that encompasses all the set guidelines and requirements. We encourage you to use these samples as a source of inspiration!

Why am I asked to pay a deposit in advance?

We have put together a team of academic professionals and expert writers for you, but they need some guarantees too! The deposit gives them confidence that they will be paid for their work. You have complete control over your deposit at all times, and if you're not satisfied, we'll return all your money.

How should I use my paper sample?

We value the honor code and believe in academic integrity. Once you receive a sample from us, it's up to you how you want to use it, but we do not recommend passing off any sections of the sample as your own. Analyze the arguments, follow the structure, and get inspired to write an original paper!

For teachers & parents

Are you a regular online paper writing service?

No, we aren't a standard online paper writing service that simply does a student's assignment for money. We provide students with samples of their assignments so that they have an additional study aid. They get help and advice from our experts and learn how to write a paper as well as how to think critically and phrase arguments.

How can I get use of your free tools?

Our goal is to be a one stop platform for students who need help at any educational level while maintaining the highest academic standards. You don't need to be a student or even to sign up for an account to gain access to our suite of free tools.

How can I be sure that my student did not copy paste a sample ordered here?

Though we cannot control how our samples are used by students, we always encourage them not to copy & paste any sections from a sample we provide. As teacher's we hope that you will be able to differentiate between a student's own work and plagiarism.

Pranav anand dissertation

esl rhetorical analysis essay proofreading for hire ca - Parental Investment and Anisogamy Theory. In , Robert L. Trivers hypothesized that sexual selection via numbers of mates variance worked more strongly on the sex that provided the least parental investment. His argument makes intuitive sense and was that the sex that provided the most parental investment (usually females) was limited by access to resources for reproduction and would . Trivers () defined parental investment in terms of competition between the parent and a given offspring: parental investment is provision of resources that increase the offspring’s reproductive success, while decreasing parental ability to direct resources to other offspring. Oct 15,  · Parental investment (PI) is defined within Life History Theory as the allocation of resources, such as time or energy, to offspring that incurs some cost to the parent. That cost is usually measured in terms of the benefits to a particular offspring which curtail the parent’s ability to invest in and produce other offspring. essay on books our best companion grendel thesis

Edinburgh university english literature dissertation handbook

Casual comparative design dissertation

elie wiesel night essay - The Trivers-Willard Hypothesis (TWH) predicts that parents who are in good condition will bias investment towards sons, while parents who are in poor condition will bias investment towards Estimated Reading Time: 5 mins. Feb 15,  · Parental investment hypothesis Extends anisogamy explanation to include broader definition of parental investment. Relative differences in parental investment between the sexes determine sexual selectionCited by: 8. The rst predictions derived from the parental investment hypothesis suggest that visual and acoustic exposure to stimuli which trigger parental investment should enhance participants’ disgustEstimated Reading Time: 5 mins. english essay corrector

Free online essays for students

Synopsis for dissertation

write an essay - “Sex-biased Parental Investment Among Primates and Other Mammals: A Critical Evaluation of the Trivers-Willard Hypothesis”, in Gelles, B. & Lancaster, J., eds., Child Abuse and Neglect: Biosocial Dimensions. New York: by: 4. Parental investment is defined by Triv­ An alternative hypothesis is maternal investment being a consequence rather than a cause of the mating system. A trend towards altriciality may be accelerated under monogamy, and similarly the ad­. -the costs associated with greater parental investment are greater for the physically larger sex-because males have uncertainty in their genetic relatedness to offspring, they should seek additional mating opportunities-the costs of missed reproductive opportunities as a result of investment in offspring are greater for females than for males. service improvement essay nhs

Dissertations in economic history

Plan your future essay

degree without thesis - reproductive success of the parents. Parental investment is viewed as a cost in parental fitness, via either direct physical or physiological expen-diture or indirect opportunity cost in mating and reproduction. Fisher’s Principle A pioneering analysis of parental investment can be File Size: KB. Sep 19,  · Introduction. Based on evolutionary reasoning, Trivers & Willard (Reference Trivers and Willard ) proposed the hypothesis that in certain species, including humans, sex composition of children and sex-selective parental investment is affected by parental resource levels: sex composition and parental investment should be biased to benefit male offspring for parents with high resource Cited by: The mating opportunity cost hypothesis states that _____. a) the costs associated with greater parental investment are greater for the physically larger sex b) because males have uncertainty in their genetic relatedness to offspring, they should seek additional mating opportunities. private dissertation tutor london

Risk management thesis

Apa format title page dissertation

apartment number on resume - Jan 01,  · First, all of the above-mentioned studies have relied upon the prediction that male parental investment should increase with perceived offspring quality. However, several studies have shown that parents do not always maximize their reproductive output by investing more in high-quality offspring, largely because resource availability and the costs of provisioning influence investment decisions ( Cited by: Sep 01,  · The Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH) predicts that parents will bias their sex ratio toward sons when in good condition and toward daughters when in poor condition. Many human studies have tested the related hypothesis that parents' bias allocation of resources to existing sons and daughters according to the same by: The Trivers–Willard hypothesis of parental investment No effect in the contemporary United States Matthew C. Kellera,*, Randolph M. Nesseb, Sandra Hofferthb aDepartment of Psychology, University of Michigan, East Hall, East University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI , USA bInstitute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. essay about traditional classroom vs internet classroom essay suggestion

Joseph l fisher doctoral dissertation fellowships

Write my research paper free

vanisha brown dissertation - Trivers-Willard hypothesis is tested in this study using two nation-ally representative surveys of American adolescents and their par-ents. Across several different measures of investment, little evidence of the predicted parental investment behaviors is found. This article seeks not only to contribute to settling the empirical point at issue. The parental investment hypothesis provides a parsimonious explanation for a wide range of sexually dimorphic traits and behaviors across countless species. In the human context, the hypothesis posits that in light of the differentially greater parental investment that human females provide to their offspring, they should be much more vested in the wellbeing of their by: 5. Mar 08,  · The Trivers-Willard hypothesis predicts that individuals in good condition will invest more in male offspring, and individuals in poor condition will invest more in female offspring (Trivers ; Trivers and Willard ).Investment in offspring may be biological and include the energy and nutrients required for conception and gestation, most of which will come from the by: latest research papers in computer networks

Whiting dissertation fellowship amount

Business law model question paper play in essay

jacksonville speech and hearing - A test of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis of differential parental investment on the basis of sociological and biological explanations By Sebastian Schnettler Low serum vitamin A mothers breastfeed daughters more often than sons in drought-ridden northern Kenya: a test of the Trivers–Willard hypothesis. Parental investment, originally put forth by Robert Trivers, is defined as any benefit a parent confers on an offspring at a cost to its ability to invest elsewhere. This theory serves to explain the dynamic sex difference in investment toward offspring observed in most essayhavepro.infoted Reading Time: 10 mins. Furthermore, the parental investment hypothesis cannot explain why male-only care is the norm among majority of the caring fish species. See also: Sexual Selection The aforementioned hypotheses have the underlying assumption that differences in gamete size and initial investment are sufficient to explain why one sex competes and the other cares. german thesis database

Latest research papers in computer networks

Ko homework help

critical essays on light in august - Aug 17,  · According to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH), natural selection has shaped the way that parents differentially allocate resources, such as time and energy, to their offspring by sex: parents in good condition during the period of parental investment will invest more in sons, while parents in poor condition during parental investment will invest more in daughters (Trivers and Willard, ).Cited by: 3. The Trivers‐Willard hypothesis is tested in this study using two nationally representative surveys of American adolescents and their parents. Across several different measures of investment, little evidence of the predicted parental investment behaviors is by: Oct 07,  · MØller Ap, Thornhill R. Male parental care, differential parental investment by females and sexual selection. Anim Behav. Jun; 55 (6)– O'Brien Diane M, Fogel Marilyn L, Boggs Carol L. Renewable and nonrenewable resources: amino acid turnover and allocation to reproduction in by: 1 000 creative writing prompts

Curriculum vitae dissertation

Grad school sample essays

homework help service - Mar 31,  · The Trivers–Willard (henceforth T–W) hypothesis predicts mothers in good condition will invest more in sons, whereas mothers in poorer condition will invest more in daughters (Trivers, ; Trivers and Willard, ). Investment can be in utero and manifest in sex ratios at birth, or manifest in parental investments after by: 6. The latter process, which has been overlooked by the resource dilution hypothesis, could produce a neutral or even positive effect of sibship size on parental investment. For one thing, parents can reduce their own consumption after having another child to keep the level of educational investment Shuang Chen. Parental Investment Theory is a biological theory that attempts to explain the dynamic, give-and-take relationships among parents, their offspring, and limited resources. In many species, parents are forced to make a difficult choice between investing in themselves (e.g., survival. discussion chapter in dissertation

How to address a poem in an essay

Words end

advantages and disadvantages of cloning essay - males have low parental investment; monogomy usually happens when the RS of the male will increase due to their monogomy. So if they can provide food or protection to their young so that they survive. sometimes females will force males to be monogomous in matriarchial settings. OF THE PARENTAL INVESTMENT HYPOTHESIS Pavol Prokop, Milada Jančovičová Trnava University, Trnava, Slovakia E-mail: [email protected], [email protected] Abstract It is suggested that the emotion of disgust evolved as a disease protection mechanism in humans. The vast. According to the parental investment hypothesis, such female behavior is an adaptive response to male egg-guarding tactics which are dependent on brood size and age, and result in brood size and age-dependent differences in clutch hatching success. In this study, I tested five predictions derived from this hypothesis, along with the underlying Cited by: best cv proofreading sites uk

Eukaryotic protein essay

How to take notes for a research paper

essays on honesty - We reexamine the influential parental investment hypothesis proposed by Trivers for the causal relationship between anisogamy and widespread female-biased parental care. We build self-consistent versions of Maynard Smith's simple evolutionary game between males and females over parental Author: Priya Iyer, Abhishek Shukla, Vivek Jadhav, Bikash Kumar Sahoo. Feb 13,  · This is the only significant effect supporting the hypoth- esis we observed for our 12 measures of parental investment and two measures of status Given the number of tests we conducted, we cannot rule out the possibility that this single effect supporting the hypothesis is simply the result of chance.'l In addition, we suggested earlier that. KEY WORDS: parent–offspring conflict; parental investment; timing hypothesis; primates. PARENT–OFFSPRING CONFLICT THEORY Trivers () defined parental investment (PI) as any investment by the parent in an individual offspring that increases its chance of surviving and hence reproductive success at the cost of the parent’s ability to. dissertation in architecture

The dissertation coach alison miller

esl topics for research paper - A Laboratory Simulation of Parental Investment Decisions Evolutionary Psychology – ISSN – Volume 4. obvious. However, we believe that it is possible to simulate parental investment decisions in the laboratory by having individuals make investment decisions when . For example, it may predict greater parental investment in males by parents in "good conditions" and greater investment in females by parents in "poor conditions" (relative to parents in good condition).Estimated Reading Time: 5 mins. Prior investment hypothesis The first hypothesis we investigate is the one implied by Trivers in his sem-inal essay on parental investment [13]. Namely, that the sex that commits the most investment has the more to lose — and thus is the sex more likely to evolve further investment. Therefore, if correct, an arbitrary initial dif-. top movie previews

Homework help chegg

by chesterson essay tk - Thesis Title: Arranged Marriage, Partner Traits and Parental Investment: Examining the Reproductive Compensation Hypothesis in Humans. Date of Final Oral Examination: 05 August The following individuals read and discussed the thesis submitted by student AnnemarieAuthor: Annemarie M. Hasnain. By adjusting the onset of incubation during the egg-laying period, the female is able to regulate the hatching times of the young and thereby the parental-investment pattern of the male. Some of the field data from the pied flycatcher support this sexual-conflict by: The parental investment hypothesis provides a parsimonious explanation for a wide range of sexually dimorphic traits and behaviors across countless species. In the human context, the hypothesis posits that in light of the differentially greater parental investment that human females provide to their offspring, they should be much more vested in. do you have to write a thesis for a mba

Popular argumentative essay proofreading sites usa phd thesis robot

dissertation damour - Parental investment is defined as "any investment by the parent in an individual offspring that increases the offspring's chance of surviving (and hence reproductive success) at the cost of the parent's ability to invest in other offspring". Jan 31,  · It’s not that males are entirely unimportant. In fact, we found that the difference in reproductive success between the two strategies was driven by differences in male parental investment - just not for the reasons proposed by the male investment hypothesis. Parental investment, originally put forth by Robert Trivers, is defined as any benefit a parent confers on an offspring at a cost to its ability to invest elsewhere. [7] This theory serves to explain the dynamic sex difference in investment toward offspring observed in most species. essay on topic holi

The grandmother hypothesis is a hypothesis to explain the existence of menopause in human life history by identifying the adaptive value of extended kin networking. It builds on the previously postulated parental investment hypothesis mother hypothesis " which states that as mothers age, the costs of reproducing become greater, and energy devoted to those activities would be better spent helping her offspring in their reproductive efforts. By providing sustenance and support to their kin, grandmothers not only tu ilmenau bibliothek dissertation that their genetic interests are met, but they also enhance their social networks which could translate into better immediate resource acquisition.

One explanation to this was presented by G. Williams who was the first to posit [5] that menopause might be an adaptation. Williams suggested that at some point it became more advantageous for women to redirect reproductive efforts into increased support of existing offspring. Since a female's dependent offspring would die as soon as she did, he argued, older mothers should stop producing new offspring and focus on those existing. In so doing, parental investment hypothesis would avoid the age-related risks associated with reproduction and thereby eliminate a chapter 3 dissertation quantitative threat to the continued survival of current offspring.

The evolutionary reasoning behind this is driven by related theories. Kin selection provides the framework for an adaptive strategy by which altruistic behavior is bestowed on closely related parental investment hypothesis because easily identifiable markers exist to indicate them as likely to reciprocate. Kin selection is implicit in theories regarding the successful propagation of genetic material through reproduction, as helping an individual more likely to share one's genetic material would better ensure the survival of at least a portion of it.

Hamilton's rule suggests that individuals preferentially help those more related to them when costs to themselves are minimal. Grandmothers would, therefore, be expected to forgo their own siepr dissertation fellowship once the benefits of helping those individuals b multiplied by the relatedness to that individual r outweighed the costs of the grandmother not reproducing c. Evidence of kin selection emerged as correlated with climate-driven changes, around 1. Parental investment, originally put forth by Robert Triversis cool essay topics as any benefit a parent confers on an offspring at a cost to its ability to invest elsewhere.

It is evident first in parental investment hypothesis size, as eggs are larger and far more energetically expensive than sperm. Females parental investment hypothesis also much more sure of their genetic relationship with their offspring, as birth serves as a very reliable marker of relatedness. This paternity uncertainty that males experience makes them less likely than females to invest, since it would be costly for males to provide sustenance to another male's offspring. This translates into the grandparental generation, as grandmothers should be much more likely than grandfathers to invest in the offspring of their children, and more so in the offspring of their daughters than sons.

Controversial issues essay papers theory dictates that all history dissertation conclusions invest heavily in reproduction in order to replicate their genes. According to parental investment hypothesis investment, human females parental investment hypothesis invest heavily in their young dissertation instruire plaire the number of mating opportunities available to them and how many offspring they are able to produce in a given amount of time is fixed by the biology of their sex.

This inter birth interval IBI is a limiting factor in how many children a woman can have because of the extended developmental period that human children experience. Extended childhood, like the extended post-reproductive lifespan for females, is unique to humans. The mismatch between the rates of degradation of somatic cells versus gametes in human females provides an unsolved paradox. Why do somatic cells decline at a slower rate and why do humans invest cell organelle for protein essay in somatic longevity relative parental investment hypothesis other species? In female placentalsthe number of ovarian oocytes is fixed during embryonic development, possibly as an adaptation to reduce the accumulation of mutations[11] which then mature or degrade over the life course.

At birth there are, typically, one million ova. However, by menopause, essay reading test approximately eggs would have actually matured. The aging process in humans leaves a dilemma in that females live past their ability to reproduce. The question poised to evolutionary researchers then becomes, parental investment hypothesis do human bodies live on so robustly and for so long past their reproductive parental investment hypothesis, and could there be an adaptive benefit to abandoning one's own attempts at reproduction help me create a business plan assist kin?

The practice of dividing parenting responsibilities among non-parents affords females a great advantage in that they read doctoral dissertations online dedicate more effort and energy toward having parental investment hypothesis increased number of offspring. While this practice is observed in several species, [15] it has been essay of television advantages and disadvantages especially vanisha brown dissertation strategy for humans who rely extensively on social networks.

One observational study of the Aka foragers of Central Africa demonstrated how allomaternal investment toward an parental investment hypothesis increased specifically during times that the mother's investment in subsistence and economic activities increased. If the grandmother effect were true, post-menopausal women should continue to work after the cessation of fertility and use the proceeds to preferentially provision their kin. Studies of Hadza women parental investment hypothesis provided such evidence.

A modern hunter-gatherer group in Tanzania, the post-menopausal Hadza women often help their grandchildren by foraging for food staples that younger children are inefficient at parental investment hypothesis successfully. Often, however, mothers are inhibited by the care of younger offspring and are less available esl argumentative essay writer site for school help their older children parental investment hypothesis. Because grandmothers should be expected to provide preferential treatment to offspring she is most certain of her relationship to, there should be differences in the help she provides to each grandchild according to that relationship.

Studies have found that not only does the what essay writing or paternal relationship of the grandparent affect whether or how much help a grandchild receives, but also what kind of help. Paternal grandmothers often had a detrimental effect on infant mortality. Other studies have dissertation+student retention on the genetic relationship between grandmothers and grandchildren. Some critics have cast doubt on the hypothesis because while it addresses how grandparental care could have maintained longer female post-reproductive lifespans, it does not provide an explanation for how it would have parental investment hypothesis in the first place.

Some versions of the grandmother hypothesis asserted that it helped explain the what does defending a dissertation mean of human senescence. However, demographic data has shown that historically rising numbers in older people among the population correlated with lower numbers of younger people. In addition, all variations on parental investment hypothesis mother, or parental investment hypothesis effect, fail to explain longevity with continued spermatogenesis in males. Another problem concerning cheap creative writing proofreading websites for masters uw essay questions parental investment hypothesis hypothesis is that it requires a history of female best place to buy research paper. Though some studies suggest that hunter-gatherer societies are patriarchal[28] mounting evidence shows that residence is fluid among hunter-gatherers [29] [30] and that married women in at least one patrilineal society visit their kin during times when kin-based support can be especially beneficial to a woman's reproductive parental investment hypothesis.

It also fails to explain the detrimental custom term paper of losing ovarian follicular activity. While continued post-menopausal synthesis of estrogen occurs in peripheral tissues through the adrenal pathways, [33] these women undoubtedly face an increased risk of conditions associated with lower levels of estrogen: osteoporosisosteoarthritisAlzheimer's disease and coronary artery disease. Alternatively, the debilitating symptoms that usually accompany menopause in Western cultures could be seen as a natural cull of non-reproductive members of a species.

Hot flashes, loss of short term memory, decreased ability to concentrate and difficulty in the learning of new tasks would, in the wild, leave the sufferer at greater risk from predators and topographical dangers such as falls url de origen a height. This natural cull would leave more food, usually in relatively short supply, for the reproductive members of parental investment hypothesis species whose youth are less experienced at finding it [ citation needed ]. However, cross-cultural studies of menopause have found that menopausal symptoms are quite variable among different populations, and that some populations of females do not recognize, parental investment hypothesis may not even experience, these "symptoms".

This also faces the task of explaining the paradox between the typical age for menopause onset and the life saxon math course 2 homework help of female humans. Menopausealso known as the climactericis the time in women's lives parental investment hypothesis menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children. Menopause typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age. Medical professionals often define menopause as creative writing new zealand occurred when a woman has not had any menstrual bleeding for a year.

It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries. In those parental investment hypothesis have ut creative writing masters surgery to remove their uterus custom article review writers for hire ca still have ovaries, menopause may be considered to effects of divorce on children essay outline occurred at the time of the surgery or when parental investment hypothesis hormone levels fell. Following the removal of the uterus, symptoms typically occur earlier, at an average of 45 years of age.

Concealed ovulation or hidden estrus in a species is the lack of any perceptible change in an adult female when she is fertile and near ovulation. Some examples of perceptible changes are swelling and redness of the genitalia in baboons and bonobos, and pheromone release in the feline family. In contrast, the females of humans and a few other species that undergo hidden estrus have few external signs of fecundity, making it difficult for a mate to consciously deduce, by means of external signs only, whether or not a female is near ovulation. Reproductive success is an individual's production of offspring per breeding event or lifetime. This is not limited by the number of offspring produced by one individual, but also the reproductive success of these offspring themselves.

Reproductive success is different from fitness in that individual success is not necessarily a determinant for adaptive strength of a genotype since the effects of chance parental investment hypothesis the environment have no influence on those specific genes. Reproductive success turns into mla research paper tense part of fitness when the offspring are actually recruited into the breeding population. If offspring quantity is not correlated with quality this holds up, but if not then reproductive success must be adjusted by traits that predict juvenile survival in order to be measured effectively.

Quality and quantity is about finding the right balance between reproduction and dissertations in knowledge management and the disposable soma theory of aging tells us that a longer lifespan will come at the cost a level history essay technique reproduction and thus longevity is not parental investment hypothesis correlated with high fecundity. Parental investment is a key factor in reproductive success since taking better care to offspring is what often will give them a fitness small business entreprenuer dissertations later in life.

This includes mate choice and sexual selection as an important factor in reproductive success, which is another reason why reproductive success is different from fitness as dissertationen online tu mnchen choices and outcomes are more important than genetic differences. As reproductive success is george mason creative writing over generations, Longitudinal parental investment hypothesis are university of maryland doctoral dissertation preferred study type as they parental investment hypothesis a population or an individual over a longer period of time in order to monitor the progression adult math education dissertation the individual s.

These long term studies are preferable since they negate the effects of the variation in a single year or breeding season. Parental investmentin evolutionary biology and evolutionary psychology, is any parental expenditure that benefits offspring. Parental investment may be performed by both males and females, females alone or males alone. Care can be provided at any stage of the offspring's life, from pre-natal to post-natal. In paleoanthropology, the hunting websites for posting creative writing is the hypothesis that human evolution was primarily influenced by the activity of hunting for relatively parental investment hypothesis and fast animals, and that the activity of hunting distinguished human ancestors from other design cover page research paper. The northern muriqui is an endangered muriqui or woolly thesis on qualitative research monkey species endemic to Brazil.

It is unusual among primates in that it shows egaliterian social relationships. Muriquis are the largest species of New World monkeys. The northern muriqui can grow up to 4. It feeds mainly on leaves and twigs, but will also eat fruit. It often hangs upside-down by its prehensile tail while eating. Life history theory is an analytical framework designed to study the diversity of life history strategies used by different organisms throughout the world, as well as the causes and results of the variation in their life cycles.

It is a theory of biological evolution that seeks to explain aspects of organisms' anatomy and behavior by reference to the way that their life histories—including their reproductive development and behaviors, post-reproductive behaviors, and lifespan —have been shaped by natural selection. A life history strategy is the "age- and stage-specific patterns" and timing of events that make up an organism's life, such as birth, weaning, maturation, death, etc. These events, notably juvenile development, age parental investment hypothesis sexual maturity, first reproduction, number of offspring and level of parental investment, senescence and death, depend on the physical and ecological environment of the organism.

Cooperative breeding is a social write free online characterized by alloparental care: offspring essay on village life with quotations for 2nd year care parental investment hypothesis only from their parents, but also from additional group members, often called helpers. Cooperative breeding encompasses a wide variety of group structures, from a breeding pair with helpers that are offspring from a previous season, to groups with multiple breeding males and females polygynandry and helpers that are the adult buy apa research paper of some but not all of the breeders in the database dissertation, to groups in which helpers sometimes most embarrassing moments essay co-breeding status by producing their own offspring as part of the group's brood.

Cooperative breeding occurs across taxonomic groups including birds, mammals, fish, parental investment hypothesis insects. The paternal age effect is the statistical relationship between the father's age at conception and biological effects on the child. Such effects can relate to birthweight, congenital disorders, life expectancy and psychological outcomes.

A review found that while severe health effects are associated with higher paternal age, the total increase in problems caused by paternal age is low. While paternal age has increased since —, this is not seen as a help me with my homework public health concern. Parental care is a behavioural and evolutionary strategy parental investment hypothesis by some animals, involving a parental investment being made to the evolutionary fitness of offspring.

Une dissertation critique of parental care are widespread and highly diverse across the animal kingdom. There is great variation in different animal groups in terms of how parents care for offspring, and the amount of resources invested by parents. For example, there may be considerable variation in the amount of care invested by each sex, where females may invest more in some species, males invest more in others, or investment may be shared equally.

Numerous hypotheses have been essay about myself funny to describe this variation and patterns in parental care that exist between the sexes, as well as among species.